Effect of impurities on physical properties of CO 2 and equations of state impacts pipeline design – pipeline hydraulics, avoidance of hydrate formation & two phase flow etc Transient conditions (e.g. blow down, start up & shutdown) need special consideration for avoidance of two-phase conditions HSE/ Regulatory/Design codes issues needs to be defined as it is important in pipeline routing. Risk of long running brittle fractures (due to cooling effects around leaks) and long running ductile fractures (due to phase changes during depressurisation). Network design, development, operation and management (metering & custody transfer etc) Strategy for development of infrastructure – how much CO2 to collect, when. Top 16 sources account for around 40% of CO2 output Pipeline Issues
Offshore Pipelines: Additional Issues No experience of transporting CO2 for long distances offshore. The only subsea CO2 pipeline that has been laid is the Snohvit pipeline Pressures typically 50 to 150 bar for existing offshore pipelines. Maintaining sufficiently high pressures for delivery specifications could be a problem Availability of existing infrastructure- Trunk lines etc Upgrading existing infrastructure for EOR Integration of onshore and offshore networks Decommissioning Vs. Re-use Pipeline integrity and fitness for purpose in re-use Hydrostatic pressure may be mitigating factor with regard to brittle fracture Impurities introduce variables in most aspects of CO2 transport.
Summary of Progress Update at Newcastle. Technical & Regulatory requirement (Completed): Fundamental knowledge of hydraulics have been established. Model validation with real-time pipeline data. Regulations and design codes. Input data into scenario models which include source and sinks – Transport scenario building (ongoing) Identification of sources and sinks - large sources will be chosen. Awaiting input for sinks. Material issues –Fracture propagation models Network dev. and mgmt Existing Infrastructure – availability in the North Sea
On-going/future work Transient modelling with OLGA and STONER – Start up, shut down, cyclic source operation, line pack etc. Validation of Models with Real time pipeline data from Kinder Morgan. Developing fracture propagation models for CO2 pipelines. GIS routing exercise based on pipeline design codes
Networking Activities Contacts with Industry : AMEC, BP, Polytec Norway, Advantica, KMCO2: -Stoner transient software loaned to the University for CO2 on an academic license with sponsored training -OLGA multiphase transient training sponsored by Polytec and the software is used on Polytec premises -Kinder Morgan and Denburry CO2 company has agreed to provide data for model building and validation.
Other information Dissemination / Networking Activities DatePresenterAssociationTitle Mar-07P. SeevamEnergy Industry Council (EIC) CO2 Pipeline Transport Infrastructure - Bridging the Knowledge Gap Sep-07Prof. DownieOffshore Europe Transport of CO2 for Carbon Capture and Storage in the UK Sep-07Dr Race 2nd Clean Coal and Carbon Capture Conference – Securing the Future Transport Challenges for Captured Carbon Nov-07Prof. Downie The Inaugural European Carbon Capture and Storage Summit Panel on Transport Technologies Jan-08Prof Downie International Workshop on Power Generation With CCS in India Some Technical Aspects of CO2 Transport for Large Scale CCS
Publications/Awards Publications: 1.P.N. Seevam, J.M. Race, M.J. Downie, Challenges for Offshore Transport of Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide, 26th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering (OMAE), June 10-15 2007 San Diego California. 2.M.J.Downie, J.M.Race, P.N.Seevam, Transport of CO2 for Carbon Capture and Storage in the UK SPE Offshore Europe 2007 3.P.N. Seevam, J.M.Race, M.J.Downie, Carbon Dioxide Pipelines for Sequestration in the UK – Engineering Gap Analysis Transmission of CO2, H2, and biogas: exploring new uses for natural gas pipelines conference, 30-31st May 2007 Amsterdam. This paper is also a featured article in Global Pipeline Monthly GPM which is a joint venture between Netherlands-Based Alexanders Gas and Oil Connections and UK Based Pipeline World Magazine. The paper is also be published in the Journal of Pipeline Engineering, Sept 2007 and the Australian Pipeliner Magazine. 5.P.N. Seevam, P.Hopkins, J.M.Race, M.J.Downie, The Impact of Impurities on Supercritical CO2Pipeline Transport International Conference on Petroleum Sustainable Development 2007,Beijing China. Awards: Excellent Paper Award at the International Petroleum Sustainable Development Conference China 2007-09-19 Best Post Graduate Student Award at the International Energy Agency (IEA) Summer School2007, Kloster Seeon,Germany
Future Publications 2008 P.N. Seevam, J.M.Race, M.J.Downie, Hydraulic Modelling for Anthropogenic CO2 Pipelines, Journal of Ocean Engineering – Publication Due date has not been notified.. GHGT-9 Washington D.C– Joint paper with Imperial looking at transient effects of sources on pipeline transport. IPC 2008 – International Pipeline Conference 2008 Calgary Alberta Canada GHGT-9 ? Fracture Propagation in CO2 Pipelines
OBJECTIVES Identifying, locating and classifying the sources comprehensively. Identifying and locating suitable offshore sites for EOR and/or storage. Developing/ designing/ modelling transport systems to bridge the two. Theme A6 – UK Infrastucture & Regulation
Supporting Slides - Large scale infrastructure The total CO 2 emissions from all reporting UK industrial sites was 283Mt in 2004 Most of the major sources are power plants, steel plants and petrochemical complexes The 20 largest power plants represent 49% of the total industrial emissions. It has been estimated that there is sufficient CO 2 storage capacity in the UKCS oil and gas fields to store all current UK industrial emissions for between 13 and 38 years. Source: Report No COAL R308 DTI/PUB URN 06/2027