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Capture-ready principles and design for pulverised coal plants Mathieu Lucquiaud, Hannah Chalmers, Jia Li and Jon Gibbins Energy Technology for Sustainable.

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Presentation on theme: "Capture-ready principles and design for pulverised coal plants Mathieu Lucquiaud, Hannah Chalmers, Jia Li and Jon Gibbins Energy Technology for Sustainable."— Presentation transcript:

1 Capture-ready principles and design for pulverised coal plants Mathieu Lucquiaud, Hannah Chalmers, Jia Li and Jon Gibbins Energy Technology for Sustainable Development Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial Xi Liang and David Reiner, Judge Business School, Cambridge UKCCSC project meeting, 20 th March 2008

2 Why do CCS? – cumulative global CO 2 emissions Unconventional oil includes oil sands and oil shales but not CTL. Unconventional gas includes coal bed methane, deep geopressured gas etc. but not gas from coal and a possible 12,000 GtC from gas hydrates. CARBON IN FOSSIL FUELS CARBON THAT CAN BE EMITTED TO ATMOSPHERE From 3 rd Assessment Report,

3 Why do capture-ready? – time needed to learn (1) Gibbins and Chalmers (2008), Energy Policy FIRST TRANCHE Demonstration SECOND TRANCHE Commercial & Regulatory Drivers Overall effort also important to maintain continuity GLOBAL CCS ROLLOUT Big prize is getting two learning cycles from two tranches of CCS projects before global rollout EU CCS ROLLOUT PLANTS COMING INTO SERVICE 12 plants by 2015 in EU CCS build-up plus all plants built capture-ready CCS retrofit on capture-ready plants 2015 DEMO PROJECTS IN PLACE 2020 CCS STANDARD IN EU 2025 GLOBAL CCS ROLLOUT Critical path for IGCC and oxyfuel demo and deployment?…

4 Why do capture-ready? – time needed to learn (2) Critical path for post-combustion capture demo and deployment?… Gibbins and Chalmers (2008), Energy Policy Second tranche plants overlap with first tranche since many lessons can be learned without needing a new plant (e.g. solvent development and some aspects of absorber design, including packing) PLANTS COMING INTO SERVICE First tranche plants earlier (especially if retrofits) Big prize is having technology suitable for global deployment available up to 5 years earlier (and well suited to retrofit too) Construction of second tranche plants can start earlier since capture plant design fixed later in the process Shorter timescales for building new capture plant (since dont need new power plant) mean that more learning is available from earlier tranches for rollout

5 Owner –needs to protect the investment value –needs to get plant permitted Society –doesnt need to protect investment value, but –does need someone to be able to operate the plant in the future with CCS (if the original owner goes broke) Regulator(s) –needs to keep the lights on, get new plant built, provide continuity, minimise costs etc. Also, some risk-based perspectives…

6 Must: Have access to suitable geological storage Have space and access for capture equipment Have reasonable confidence it will work (feasibility study) Also consider: Up-front expenditure with savings later, e.g. Bigger/better equipment? Move near cheaper/better CO 2 storage? Flexibility – initial retrofit and later technology upgrades But only pre-investments with very good returns justified See IEA GHG report on capture-ready Basic principles for capture-ready design

7 Must but different interests? Must: Have access to geological storage Have space and access for capture equipment Have reasonable confidence it will work Also consider: Up-front expenditure with savings later, e.g. Bigger, better equipment? Cheaper/better CO 2 storage? Flexibility – initial retrofit and later technology upgrades Society Reasonably- justified plan for the future Owner & auditors, banks engineers etc. Detailed studies for immediate action, protect investment value Regulator e.g. Have to re-permit for CO 2 after ten years? Whys map on to hows

8 IGCC Hard to integrate before and after capture Oversize components (Parsons study) Shift before capture (Jacobs GEM) Simpler option - build a second unit alongside when capture is added and size to integrate? Many designs possible (e.g. 4 entrained flow gasifiers) OXYFUEL Boiler manufacturers developing designs Can also make post-combustion capture ready IGCC and oxyfuel capture-ready designs

9 Post-com capture credibility - must be demonstrated Many future developments likely Should not lock in to known technology Likely common requirements, can be met at low cost: Space – large volumes of gas to handle, building work Clean and probably cool flue gas Pressure drop Provision for extra instrumentation and control, other services Extra cooling (efficiency penalty) Some electricity for capture/compression plant Some steam for temperature swing solvents Post-combustion capture-ready designs

10 Limited experience of offshore CO2 pipelines More experience with onshore pipelines, but often in places with little/no population It seems likely that regulators will need to play a role here One key issue is then what a UK/North Sea network might look like (hub and spokes model?)… Some key issues to consider for pipeline (and storage) planning

11 CCS is needed since danger of excess cumulative emissions from fossil fuel use Various options for capture, transport and storage Main actions now are getting ready for CCS –Serious demonstration projects and deployment strategy required (local, regional and global) –Also want new-build plants to be capture- ready Challenging, but we know enough to get started Overview so far…

12 Clutched LP turbine added for capture unclutched for capture or removed and LP rotor replaced by lay shaft IP HP LPLP LPLP reboiler DSH 3.6 bar Floating IP/LP crossover pressure IP HP LPLP LPLP added for capture reboiler DSH 6.7 bar => 3.6 bar Throttled LP turbine IP HP LPLP LPLP added for capture reboiler DSH 3.6 bar Steam turbine design for capture-readiness

13 PC plant without CCS PC plant with CCS Clutched LP turbine retrofit Throttled LP turbine retrofit Floating IP/LP crossover pressure Efficiency without CCS 45.3% Efficiency with CCS 35.9% 35.0%35.5% Flexible design for 2 nd and 3 rd generation of solvents NOYES Additional capital costs HighNegligible Operation without capture Reclutched LP turbine Easy

14 IEA GHG Report – 2007/4 CO2 capture-ready power plants Report commissioned in response to G8 Gleneagles communiqué It will be presented at the G8 summit in Japan this summer Inputs to policy process include…

15 Capture-ready makes sense in the context of cumulative emissions and new- build of coal-fired power plants (globally) Capture-ready principles for post- combustion capture at coal-fired power plants are clear Additional costs close to zero Steam turbine manufacturers and power utilities have taken the message on board Key conclusions

16 Capture-ready photo montage (some details omitted) Richard Hotchkiss, RWE npower - Recent Developments in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) – Coal Research Forum - Tilbury 2x 800 MW

17 Capture-ready photo montage (some details omitted) Richard Hotchkiss, RWE npower - Recent Developments in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) – Coal Research Forum -

18 PROJECT TITLE: CHINESE ADVANCED POWER PLANT CARBON CAPTURE OPTIONS (CAPPCCO) TECHNICAL SUMMARY OF PROJECT Carbon capture characteristics database for existing & planned plants Carbon capture characteristics database for existing & planned plants Develop and assess capture options for planned new pulverised coal (PC) plants Develop and assess capture options for planned new pulverised coal (PC) plants Develop and assess capture options for existing PC plants Develop and assess capture options for existing PC plants Special issues for adding carbon capture to Chinese power plants e.g. water requirements, cooling requirements, coal properties, capture performance under variable Chinese climatic conditions including likely performance of next-generation pollutant control technologies Special issues for adding carbon capture to Chinese power plants e.g. water requirements, cooling requirements, coal properties, capture performance under variable Chinese climatic conditions including likely performance of next-generation pollutant control technologies Financing capture ready and capture retrofit Financing capture ready and capture retrofit

19 19 Capture Option – Financing Capture Ready Capture Option Issuing a Tradable Capture Option help financing Capture Ready A Capture Option has plenty of potential benefits The value of a Capture Option is significant The feasibility of Capture Ready depends on the additional capital outlay for Capture Ready. (For example, in this model, Capture Ready is economic at all discount rate, if required additional total capital is less than 2%. ) Financing Capture Ready: Issuing a Tradable Capture Option

20 20 Capture Option Capture Site Storage Site Transportation Storage Site (IPCC CCS Special Report, 2005) Reiner D, Liang X, Gibbins J, Li J

21 21 Closure Possibilities Capture Option

22 22 Capture Option


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