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School of GeoSciences Subsurface Research Group UKCCSC Meeting 18 th April Nottingham Natural analogues of CO 2 leakage from the Colorado Plateau Stuart.

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Presentation on theme: "School of GeoSciences Subsurface Research Group UKCCSC Meeting 18 th April Nottingham Natural analogues of CO 2 leakage from the Colorado Plateau Stuart."— Presentation transcript:

1 School of GeoSciences Subsurface Research Group UKCCSC Meeting 18 th April Nottingham Natural analogues of CO 2 leakage from the Colorado Plateau Stuart Gilfillan, Stuart Haszeldine, Zoe Shipton and Mark Wilkinson

2 School of GeoSciences Subsurface Research Group Key Questions 1.How do natural CO 2 storage sites fail? - Faults, lithology, caprock seal and groundwater regime. 2.What are the pathways of CO 2 migration to the surface? - Can we predict/prevent leakage in engineered sites? 3.How long does CO 2 migration to the surface take? - CO 2 needs to be stored for 10,000 years. 4.Can leakage of CO 2 be monitored and quantified? - Which chemical tracers can be used. - How effective are they at monitoring natural CO 2 leakage?

3 School of GeoSciences Subsurface Research Group Colorado Plateau

4 School of GeoSciences Subsurface Research Group Colorado Plateau Green River Seeps and Salt Wash fault zone, Utah

5 School of GeoSciences Subsurface Research Group -Cold water springs and geysers driven by pressure of CO 2. - Gas is % CO % N 2 - Trace noble gases. -CO 2 release from > 80ka. -Where does this water and CO 2 originate from? -How is this CO 2 being transported to the surface? Green River Seeps and Salt Wash fault zone, Utah Crystal geyser, Utah Colorado Plateau

6 School of GeoSciences Subsurface Research Group Origin of the Water? -Salinity of erupted water indicates migration of water from deep aquifer.

7 School of GeoSciences Subsurface Research Group Deep aquifer Shallow aquifer Origin of the Water?

8 School of GeoSciences Subsurface Research Group From Ballentine et al Magmatic Component 3 He Origin of the CO 2 ?

9 School of GeoSciences Subsurface Research Group From Ballentine et al Magmatic Component 3 He Atmospheric Component Aquifer Recharge 20 Ne 36 Ar 84 Kr Formation Water Origin of the CO 2 ?

10 School of GeoSciences Subsurface Research Group From Ballentine et al Magmatic Component 3 He RadiogenicComponent In-situproduction 4 He 21 Ne 40 Ar Atmospheric Component Aquifer Recharge 20 Ne 36 Ar 84 Kr Formation Water Accumulate in groundwater Origin of the CO 2 ?

11 School of GeoSciences Subsurface Research Group Origin of the CO 2 – CO 2 / 3 He ratio Mantle CO 2 / 3 He range: 1 x 10 9 – 1 x Measured from Mid Ocean Ridge Basalts - MORBs

12 School of GeoSciences Subsurface Research Group e e e e e e e+12 CO 2 Concentration (%) Mantle (MORB) range: 1 x 10 9 – 1 x Above 1 x : Crustal CO 2 Below 1 x 10 9 : CO 2 lost relative to 3 He. Origin of the CO 2 – CO 2 / 3 He ratio CO 2 / 3 He Ratio

13 School of GeoSciences Subsurface Research Group Predominantly crustal derived CO 2 erupted from the Green River seeps. Small mantle component 1 – 16% Mantle (MORB) range: 1 x 10 9 – 1 x % Mantle CO 2 Origin of the CO 2 – CO 2 / 3 He ratio e e e e e e e+12 Green River Seeps CO 2 Concentration (%) CO 2 / 3 He Ratio Mantle (MORB) range: 1 x 10 9 – 1 x 10 10

14 School of GeoSciences Subsurface Research Group Conclusions

15 School of GeoSciences Subsurface Research Group Other natural analogues of CO 2 leakage Hurricane Fault, Utah -Active, steeply dipping normal fault ~ 250 km long, ~2.5 km displacement. -CO 2 & 40°C water discharges from fault zone. -Noble gas and δ 13 C (CO 2 ) analysis underway. -No evidence of a CO 2 reservoir at depth. Hurricane fault looking north

16 School of GeoSciences Subsurface Research Group Other natural analogues of CO 2 leakage Hurricane Fault, Utah -Active, steeply dipping normal fault ~ 250 km long, ~2.5 km displacement. -CO 2 & 40°C water discharges from fault zone. -Noble gas and δ 13 C (CO 2 ) analysis underway. -No evidence of a CO 2 reservoir at depth. St. Johns Dome -Large natural CO 2 reservoir (445 billion m 3 ). -CO 2 rich surface seeps and travertines. -Composition of deep gas and waters known. -Can natural CO 2 can be chemically tagged? e.g. using δ 13 C(CO 2 ) and/or noble gases.

17 School of GeoSciences Subsurface Research Group St. Johns Dome Workflow -Water samples collected from 18 surface seeps - 14 C & tritium for groundwater dating. - Solute chemistry. - Noble gas, δ 13 C(CO 2 ), δ 18 O and δD isotopes. -Compare composition of surface seeps to known chemistry of reservoir fluids. -Use geochemical modeling to determine and quantify mineralogy changes as CO 2 migrates. -Reservoir models underway to investigate CO 2 migration pathways and timescales.

18 School of GeoSciences Subsurface Research Group Summary 1.How do natural CO 2 storage sites fail? - Primary mechanism is migration along fault planes. 2.What are the pathways of CO 2 migration to the surface? - CO 2 is dissolved into the groundwater and transported along faults. 3.How long does CO 2 migration to the surface take? - Unknown at present, dating of CO 2 deposits will hopefully provide a timeframe. 4.Can leakage of CO 2 be monitored and quantified? - Yes, a baseline geochemical survey helps a lot!


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