Presentation on theme: "ICT for Development ICT for Rural Development ICT4D Lectures 11 and 12 Tim Unwin."— Presentation transcript:
ICT for Development ICT for Rural Development ICT4D Lectures 11 and 12 Tim Unwin
Lectures 11 and 12 Outline Setting the scene Identifying the rural The potential of ICTs for rural development Constraints Potential solutions Case studies
Lectures 11 and 12 Setting the scene Understanding Livelihoods: complexity, choices and policies in Southern India A 20 minute video by Catcher Media for DFID Designed to spark discussion about sustainable livelihoods approaches Resource for development professionals in the NGO and Government sectors working at both policy and field levels
Lectures 11 and 12 Setting the scene What are the core messages this video is trying to get across? What strengths does the video format have in delivering these? How would you use the video in a learning context with NGOs? Government officials?
Lectures 11 and 12 Identifying the rural What do we think of when we consider the rural? Low density Extensive production Forestry Agriculture Generally poor Why else would people migrate to towns? Backward Limited services The Urban as dominant and civilised
Lectures 11 and 12 Identifying the rural How much rural development have you learnt in your courses so far? An example of bias against the rural! Yet almost all the worlds food and raw materials come from rural areas Michael Lipton (1977) Why Poor People Stay Poor Urban bias Dominance of interests designed to increase unequal terms of trade between urban and rural areas and people
Lectures 11 and 12 ICTs in rural development Potential to Provide services to dispersed rural people Radio, TV, Internet, Mobile telephony Disseminate information more broadly Market information Agricultural extension services Breakdown the urban bias But Infrastructure is needed Costs must be affordable
Lectures 11 and 12 Key constraints in rural communication Dispersed low density populations Therefore high cost of providing services Distances High transport costs to peripheral regions Terrain Mountain ranges Impassable roads in rainy seasons Traditional lack of technological knowledge Need for easy to use solutions
Lectures 11 and 12 Technological solutions Radio can reach everywhere Soaps for health and rural development Satellites can likewise overcome line of sight constraints Especially VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) Gilat in Rwanda, Kenya, DRC, Mozambique Posta Kenya The WorldSpace solution Established in satellite radio Downloading learning content to rural areas Telephony Mobiles: dramatic impact on communication
Lectures 11 and 12 Case studies Agricultural Information Systems M.S. Swanimathan Research Foundation (India) Gilat VSAT solutions in Africa African Agricultural Technology Foundation Philippines: e-Learning for agricultural communities Bangladesh NGOs Network for Radio and Communication HP KNUST Digital Villages
Lectures 11 and 12 Internet based agricultural information services Internet in the 1990s enabled institutions to be both recipients and disseminators of information A donor supported information explosion But many such schemes failed (IICD, 2003) Technology focus No clear policy on how the information would be acquired Portals not information Point to sources of information, not the information Same as asking for milk, and being pointed to a cow Lack of integrated access
Lectures 11 and 12 M.S. Swaminathan Foundation in southern India Village knowledge centres for fishing communities Dangers of fishing in ignorance of the weather Use of satellite imagery Disseminate information to whole community Women also know, and can give them other tasks!
Lectures 11 and 12 M.S. Swaminathan Foundation in southern India Village Knowledge Centres Particular emphasis on womens education Use of solar power for energy Women helping rural women Initially from funded by IDRC Now plans to roll out across India
Lectures 11 and 12 Gilat: VSAT in Africa IP provides Internet access and telephony services on a single, low-cost platform rural telephony, Internet access and/or distance learning in South Africa, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Nambia, Kenya, Angola, Uganda, Rwanda and Mozambique In South Africa The successful application of VSATs in rural networks is best illustrated by the Telkom South Africa project to implement a 3,000-site telephone network to serve tens of thousands of rural customers. More than 1,600 VSAT sites were successfully deployed in the first two months, perhaps the quickest deployment on record. The project enabled Telkom SA to carry out its Universal Service Obligation (USO) to provide a large number of rural sites - largely schools and village groceries - with basic telephone service, where none had existed.
Lectures 11 and 12 Gilat: VSAT in Africa Ethiopia Ethiopia is the site of another VSAT success story. Just outside Addis Ababa lies the Sululta earth station with its 13-meter antenna. The Ethiopian Telecommunications Corporation (ETC) has installed a network control center there to operate its 500-site VSAT network, which is spread throughout the country. This network replaced outdated analog telephone systems in outlying population centers. It provides service to more than 50,000 telephone subscribers along with broadcasts of Ethiopian television. Each site is tailored to the population who is using it. The larger sites replace or add to the old existing telephone network. Villages of approximately 1,000 persons that have shared one or two rather unreliable lines have been provided with 3-16 new, very reliable lines via their VSAT terminal. Phone sets are placed in shops, public facilities and some private homes. In larger towns, the ETC has purchased brand-new digital switches, and the VSAT network allows these switches to link more than 250 subscribers. These larger sites also receive direct transmission of Ethiopia s national TV, recently upgraded to a digital system. But who pays the cost? Fuelled by donor support (especially USA)
Lectures 11 and 12 African Agricultural Technology Foundation Creating public-private partnerships Striga (witchweed) control in cereals Insect resistance maize for Africa Pro-Viramin A enhancement in Maize and Rice Cowpeas Production Production of Bananas and Plantains
Lectures 11 and 12 Philippines e-Learning for agricultural communities Creation of enterprising rural communities Slides from Evelyn Sadsad (NEDA) Material in Reading Room Emphasising the importance of a viable business model NEDA Knowledge Emporium (http://www.neda.gov.ph/knowledge-emporium/)http://www.neda.gov.ph/knowledge-emporium/
Lectures 11 and 12 Bangladesh NGOs Network for Radio and Communication Amateur radio Working with Oxfam since 2000 To promote use of amateur radio Community Radio Training people in the use of community radio since 2001 Supporting NGOs Advocacy
Lectures 11 and 12 HP - KNUST, Ghana HPs Digital Village concept Collaboration with Kwame Nkrumah University for Science and Technology in Kumasi And University of Pennsylvania Hub in the university With spokes in villages But serious doubts over sustainability and relevance Lack of really appropriate content and knowledge of best educational uses Video
Lectures 11 and 12 Conclusions Need for a diversity of solutions Technologies can indeed overcome many of the physical constraints affecting rural areas But, need for will of governments to support them Is Liptons urban bias still alive and well in developing countries?