Presentation on theme: "ICT for Development The technologies and their uses ICT4D Lecture 5 Tim Unwin."— Presentation transcript:
ICT for Development The technologies and their uses ICT4D Lecture 5 Tim Unwin
Lecture 5 Outline Catching up! Introductory What do we understand by ICTs? Information Communication The technologies Production, consumption, exchange Their distribution Uses
Lecture 5 Catching Up Discussion Forum please log on so that you receive updates! Bibliographies Make sure you are working on these Be thinking about the web-groups you want to work in Essays - do start work on them soon!
Lecture 5 What technologies? What do you understand by Information and Communication Technologies?
Lecture 5 Defining ICTs Standard definitions: ICT (information and communications technology - or technologies) is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as videoconferencing and distance learning. ICTs are often spoken of in a particular context, such as ICTs in education, health care, or libraries. (techtarget.com)
Lecture 5 The technologies ICT Fig. 1: ICT for Development: Range of Technologies and Users Relevance Definition: The term Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) refers to technologies designed to access, process and transmit information. ICT encompass a full range of technologies – from traditional, widely used devices such as radios, telephones or TV, to more sophisticated tools like computers or the Internet. The mix of technologies used should be determined mainly by the specific local context and demand. (Weigel and Waldburger, 2004, p.19)
Lecture 5 Defining ICT4D ICT4D (Information and Communications Technologies for Development) is an initiative aimed at bridging the digital divide (the disparity between technological "have" and "have not" geographic locations or demographic groups) and aiding economic development by ensuring equitable access to up-to-date communications technologies. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) include any communication device -- encompassing radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as videoconferencing and distance learning. The United Nations, through its UN Development Programme, actively promotes ICT4D as a powerful tool for economic and social development around the world.digital divide (techtarget.com)
Lecture 5 Defining ICTs is problematic ICTs (adapted from Fillip) capturing technologies (cameras, tape recorders) storage technologies (film, CD-Roms, digital media) processing technologies (software), communication technologies (telephones, local area networks) display technologies (monitors) GIS (combine many of the above) ICTs are not particularly new Need to be very specific about what we mean Invariably people claim to use inclusive definitions, but then concentrate on computers and the Internet
Lecture 5 A framework for thinking about ICT4D technologies Most definitions begin with the technologies And are thus technology led Rather than seeing technologies as tools Lets begin with information and communication And then see what technologies can help us enhance these And use information and communication for development purposes A focus on poor and marginalised communities
Lecture 5 Information What kinds of information are there? Examples of how information can be of help to poor and marginalised people?
Lecture 5 Kinds of information **** Uses by the poor ****
Lecture 5 Relevant information technologies Examples of information technologies ****
Lecture 5 Information Generally produced for a specific purpose By someone for a particular reason Must be in a form that can be readily understood by intended audience But often later used for different purposes Requires media for dissemination Rarely dynamic Can become out of date unless revised Needs to be readily findable and searchable Value in terms of supply and demand Relationships between these are not straightforward
Lecture 5 Communication How do we communicate? What kinds of communication are there? Examples of how communication can be of help to poor and marginalised people?
Lecture 5 Kinds of Communication Kinds of communication **** Uses by the poor ****
Lecture 5 Relevant communication technologies Examples of communication technologies ****
Lecture 5 Communication Involves interaction Synchronous and asynchronous Space-time implications Communicators must understand each other, and must wish to be understood Languages, codes, rules of communication Uses many different senses Hearing, sight, smell, touch, taste Those who control the communication media wield considerable power
Lecture 5 ICTs: The technologies Production Capital seeks to reduce production costs and expand markets ICTs are products And yet are also capable of reducing costs and expanding markets High innovation costs, and yet relatively low production costs Technological innovation to ensure continued sales A challenge to sustainability Separation between Production of the enabling media Production of the content
Lecture 5 ICTs: The technologies Consumption Of both the technologies, and the messages transmitted thereby Technologies allow new modalities of consumption Exchange ICTs enable exchanges of Information Finance Communication But little exchange value in themselves High costs of recycling Environmental costs usually not taken into consideration
Lecture 5 Distribution: ITU, 2003 Population (millions) Telephone subscribers per 100 people (2003) Total Internet hosts (2002) PCs per 100 inhabitants (2002) Africa825.458.65243,1711.28 Americas [USA] 855.53 [292.30] 66.62 [116.43] 122,555,360 [115,311,958] 28.95 [65.89] Europe [UK] 795.13 [58.12] 96.28 [143.13] 18,358,507 [2,865,390] 21.44 [40.57] Asia [China] [India] 3,621.14 [1,263.80] [1,056.89] 28.52 [42.99] [7.10] 13,390,474 [554,682] [78,595] 4.36 [3.04] [0.72]
Lecture 5 Distribution: the digital divide The ICT maps of Africa http://www.uneca.org/disd/ictmaps.htm Basic ICT indicators all show markedly uneven distribution Spatially, and at different scales Socially The divide is in terms of Access Physical Cost Understanding Relevance
Lecture 5 Conclusions Need to shift the balance away from the technologies themselves, and to an understanding of information and communication How can technologies facilitate these processes for the poor and the marginalised? Emphasis on plurality of media to deliver most appropriate solutions Will the existing power relationships really enable the digital divide to be bridged?