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ICT for Development Development challenges and the role of WSIS ICT4D Lecture 3 Tim Unwin.

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Presentation on theme: "ICT for Development Development challenges and the role of WSIS ICT4D Lecture 3 Tim Unwin."— Presentation transcript:

1 ICT for Development Development challenges and the role of WSIS ICT4D Lecture 3 Tim Unwin

2 Lecture 3 Outline Defining development Global development agendas DFID: a case study ICT in development practice WSIS and ICT4D

3 Lecture 3 This course Uniquely seeks to combine the academic with the practical Building on experience in DFID Builds on academic work you have done in first two years Your comprehensive understanding of development theory Explores the practical (ir)relevance of much work by geographers in the contemporary development context At WSIS, Geneva 2003

4 Lecture 3 Your understandings of geographies of development What have been the key theoretical approaches to development by geographers? Where have geographers actually made a significant practical difference to the lives of poor people? What are the main current modalities of aid delivery in the global community?

5 Lecture 3 Defining development Defining development is far from easy Traditionally often defined largely in economic terms UNDPs Human Development Index (1991) Well known definitions of sustainable development: Meeting the needs both of today and of future generations More recent radical critiques of the entire concept of development Escobar (1995) and post-developmentalism

6 Lecture 3 Development as a moral idea If we are really to understand development, we need to see it as something embedded in our morality The belief that it is possible to make the world a better place Often described as resulting from the Enlightenment But goes back to the origins of humanity Academic critique that is not practically engaged has abrogated its responsibility We have a duty to show alternative futures

7 Lecture 3 Development practice Collapse of the former Soviet Union in late 1980s leads to a new world order The rampant dominance of global capital Under the guise of liberal democracy (politics) and the free market (economics) A new context for bilateral aid: capitalism has won Economic growth will eliminate world poverty The Washington consensus (Williamson, 1990) macroeconomic discipline a market economy, and openness to the world.

8 Lecture 3 Development practice Practice in the early-mid-1990s Structural Adjustment Programme Highly Indebted Poor Countries initiative (1996) Key role of the OECD Development Assistance Committee in developing a consensus The Millennium Development Goals (2015) UN Millennium Declaration September 2000 The new dominant mantra: elimination of poverty Based on target setting and partnerships Particular interest - the forgotten MDG 8 Commission for Africa, 2005

9 Lecture 3 Development Practice The belief that it is possible to eliminate poverty is premised on An absolute definition of poverty Whereas poverty is better seen as a relative concept Economic growth is the solution Whereas, economic growth creates a greater potential for relative poverty Has led to increased dominance of budget support mechanisms in the African context Direct financial support for central government Advantages outweighed by the unforeseen problems

10 Lecture 3 DFID: a case study of politics in practice DFID created in 1997 by the new Labour Government Until then it was the Overseas Development Administration as part of FCO Clare Short, Valerie Amos and now Hilary Benn as Secretaries of State Two key White Papers 1997: Eliminating World Poverty 2000: Making Globalisation Work for the Poor Situate DFID at the forefront of agendas on poverty, globalisation, and budget support

11 Lecture 3 DFID: The 2002 Act International Development Act 2002 In principle, any form of development assistance can be provided as long as its primary purpose is furthering sustainable development or improving the welfare of a population and there is a reasonable likelihood of this contributing to poverty reduction. The only exceptions are aid to the UK Overseas Territories, humanitarian assistance or contributions to Multilateral Development Banks. The Act is enabling legislation. It gives the Secretary of State authority to spend money for defined purposes. Once it is clear that the right purposes are driving the intention to assist, the means available are very wide. Development assistance to UK Overseas Territories is not required to satisfy the test of contributing to the reduction of poverty. Humanitarian assistance does not need to meet this test and does not need to be given for the purpose of furthering sustainable development or promoting welfare. Support for Multilateral Development Banks is the subject of separate powers In essence, Act unties aid and focuses on poverty

12 Lecture 3 DFID in practice Importance of delivery targets In part Treasury dominance across Whitehall Public Service Agreement targets Targets of all staff within DFID cascade down from this Need to minimise transaction costs Close link to the MDGs (targets again!) Centre and 27 overseas offices Challenges of a decentralised organisation Central Policy Division - recent reorganisation Dominance of macro-economic policies Allied with governance agendas

13 Lecture 3 DFID 2004 Annual Report: highlights Africa 48% of DFIDs bilateral support is spent in SSA BY 2006 annual assistance will be £1 billion Asia Funding for Asia to increase by 45% over next two years Europe, Middle East and Americas Pledged £544 million up to 2006 in Iraq International UK has written off 100% debt from most HIPC Policy New policy division created Finance and Corporate Performance Works with 1% of UK taxes and aims to spend less than 6% on administration

14 Lecture 3 Global interest in ICTs Late 1990s, coalescence of Technological change Economic growth of ICT sector Interest in how ICT could be used for development Practitioners Private sector Eager to expand market But also links with corporate social responsibility agendas Task Forces G8 Digital Opportunity Task (DOT) Force (2000) UN ICT Task Force (2001)

15 Lecture 3 The World Summit on the Information Society First Phase Culminated in Geneva December 2003 Declaration of Principles and Plan of Action Second Phase Tunis November 2005 especial focus on Internet governance Financing mechanisms

16 Lecture 3 WSIS Declaration of Principles A. Common Vision of the Information Society B. An Information Society for All: Key Principles 1. The role of governments and all stakeholders in the promotion of ICTs for development 2. Information and communication infrastructure: an essential foundation for an inclusive information society 3. Access to information and knowledge 4. Capacity building 5. Building confidence and security in the use of ICTs 6. Enabling environment 7. ICT applications: benefits in all aspects of life 8. Cultural diversity and identity, linguistic diversity and local content 9. Media 10. Ethical dimensions of the Information Society 11. International and regional cooperation C. Towards an Information Society for All Based on Shared Knowledge

17 Lecture 3 WSIS Plan of Action Builds on Principles 11 main action lines But how to fund it? Much uncertainty remains Concerns by some donors over another Global Fund Private sector and civil society seeking substantial external inputs

18 Lecture 3 Conclusions Overview of Development Theory and Practice Brief Case Study of DFID in a global context An example of one of the leading donors Origins of the WSIS Sets the overall context within which subsequent lectures will explore detailed aspects of ICT4D

19 Non-Assessed essay Opportunity for Questions Remember Alumni Careers evening Tuesday 1st February

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