Presentation on theme: "Electromagnetism Electromagnetism is one of the fundamental forces in nature, and the the dominant force in a vast range of natural and technological phenomena."— Presentation transcript:
Electromagnetism Electromagnetism is one of the fundamental forces in nature, and the the dominant force in a vast range of natural and technological phenomena The electromagnetic force is solely responsible for the structure of matter, organic, or inorganic Physics, chemistry, biology, materials science The operation of most technological devices is based on electromagnetic forces. From lights, motors, and batteries, to communication and broadcasting systems, as well as microelectronic devices.
Electric Charge The Transfer of Charge SILK Glass Rod Some materials attract electrons more than others.
Electric Charge The Transfer of Charge SILK Glass Rod - + As the glass rod is rubbed against silk, electrons are pulled off the glass onto the silk.
Electric Charge The Transfer of Charge SILK Glass Rod - - + + Usually matter is charge neutral, because the number of electrons and protons are equal. But here the silk has an excess of electrons and the rod a deficit.
Electric Charge The Transfer of Charge SILK Glass Rod - + + + + + Glass and silk are insulators: charges stuck on them stay put. - - - -
Electric Charge ++ Two positively charged rods repel each other.
Electric Charge History 600 BCGreeks first discover attractive properties of amber when rubbed. 1600 ADElectric bodies repel as well as attract 1735 ADdu Fay: Two distinct types of electricity 1750 ADFranklin: Positive and Negative Charge 1770 ADCoulomb: “Inverse Square Law” 1890 ADJ.J. Thompson: Quantization of electric charge - “Electron”
Electric Charge Summary of things we know: –There is a property of matter called electric charge. (In the SI system its units are Coulombs.) –Charges can be negative (like electrons) or positive (like protons). –In matter, the positive charges are stuck in place in the nuclei. Matter is negatively charged when extra electrons are added, and positively charged when electrons are removed. –Like charges repel, unlike charges attract. –Charges travel in conductors, not in insulators –Force of attraction or repulsion ~ 1 / r 2
Charge is Quantized q = multiple of an elementary charge e: e = 1.6 x 10 -19 Coulombs Charge MassDiameter electron - e 1 0 proton +e1836 ~10 -15 m neutron 0 1839 ~10 -15 m positron +e 1 0
Coulomb’s Law q1q1 q2q2 r 12 F 12 Force on 2 due to 1 k = (4 0 ) -1 = 9.0 x 10 9 Nm 2 /C 2 Coulomb’s law describes the interaction between bodies due to their charges
Gravitational and Electric Forces in the Hydrogen Atom +e -e M m r 12 m = 9.1 10 -31 kg M = 1.7 10 -27 kg r 12 = 5.3 10 -11 m Gravitational forceElectric Force
Gravitational and Electric Forces in the Hydrogen Atom +e -e M m r 12 m = 9.1 10 -31 kg M = 1.7 10 -27 kg r 12 = 5.3 10 -11 m Gravitational forceElectric Force F g = 3.6 10 -47 N
Gravitational and Electric Forces in the Hydrogen Atom +e -e M m r 12 m = 9.1 10 -31 kg M = 1.7 10 -27 kg r 12 = 5.3 10 -11 m Gravitational forceElectric Force F g = 3.6 10 -47 NF e = 3.6 10 -8 N
Conductors and Insulators Conductors are materials in which the electric charges move freely –Copper, aluminum and silver are good conductors (more or less all metals!) –When a conductor is charged in a small region, the charge readily distributes itself over the entire surface of the material
Insulators Insulators are materials in which electric charges do not move freely –G–Glass and rubber are examples of insulators –W–When insulators are charged by rubbing, only the rubbed area becomes charged There is no tendency for the charge to move into other regions of the material
Semiconductors The characteristics of semiconductors are between those of insulators and conductors Silicon and germanium are examples of semiconductors
Charging by Conduction A charged object (the rod) is placed in contact with another object (the sphere) Some electrons on the rod can move to the sphere When the rod is removed, the sphere is left with a charge The object being charged is always left with a charge having the same sign as the object doing the charging Metallic sphere
Charging a Metal Object by Induction When an object is connected to a conducting wire or pipe buried in the earth, it is said to be grounded A negatively charged rubber rod is brought near an uncharged sphere The charges in the sphere are redistributed –Some of the electrons in the sphere are repelled from the electrons in the rod
Charging by Induction The wire to ground is removed, the sphere is left with an excess of induced positive charge The positive charge on the sphere is evenly distributed due to the repulsion between the positive charges Charging by induction requires no contact with the object inducing the charge
Polarization In most neutral atoms or molecules, the center of positive charge coincides with the center of negative charge In the presence of a charged object, these centers may separate slightly –This results in more positive charge on one side of the molecule than on the other side This realignment of charge on the surface of an insulator is known as polarization
Examples of Polarization The charged object (on the left) induces charge on the surface of the insulator A charged comb attracts bits of paper due to polarization of the paper