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ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS All you need to be an inventor is a good imagination and a pile of junk. -Thomas Edison

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Ohm’s Law I = V / R Georg Simon Ohm (1787-1854) I= Current (Amperes) (amps) V= Voltage (Volts) R= Resistance (ohms)

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How you should be thinking about electric circuits: Voltage: a force that pushes the current through the circuit (in this picture it would be equivalent to gravity)

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Resistance: friction that impedes flow of current through the circuit (rocks in the river) How you should be thinking about electric circuits:

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Current: the actual “substance” that is flowing through the wires of the circuit (electrons!) How you should be thinking about electric circuits:

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Would This Work?

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The Central Concept: Closed Circuit

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circuit diagram cellswitchlampwires Scientists usually draw electric circuits using symbols;

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Simple Circuits Series circuit All in a row 1 path for electricity 1 light goes out and the circuit is broken Parallel circuit Many paths for electricity 1 light goes out and the others stay on

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The current decreases because the resistance increases. Ohm’s Law says that I=V/R. The voltage in the system is constant, resistance increases. 1 2 3

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PARALLEL CIRCUIT Place two bulbs in parallel. What do you notice about the brightness of the bulbs? Add a third light bulb in the circuit. What do you notice about the brightness of the bulbs? Remove the middle bulb from the circuit. What happened?

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measuring current Electric current is measured in amps (A) using an ammeter connected in series in the circuit. A

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measuring current A A This is how we draw an ammeter in a circuit. SERIES CIRCUIT PARALLEL CIRCUIT

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measuring voltage The ‘electrical push’ which the cell gives to the current is called the voltage. It is measured in volts (V) on a voltmeter V

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measuring voltage V This is how we draw a voltmeter in a circuit. SERIES CIRCUITPARALLEL CIRCUIT V

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OHM’s LAW Measure the current and voltage across each circuit. Use Ohm’s Law to compute resistance Series Circuit VoltageCurrentResistance VoltageCurrentResistance Parallel Circuit

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measuring current SERIES CIRCUIT PARALLEL CIRCUIT current is the same at all points in the circuit. 2A current is shared between the components 2A 1A

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fill in the missing ammeter readings. ? ? 4A 3A? ? 1A ? 3A 1A

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The circuit is no longer complete, therefore current can not flow The voltage decreases because the current is decreased and the resistance increases.

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The current remains the same. The total resistance drops in a parallel circuit as more bulbs are added The current increases.

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Series and Parallel Circuits Series Circuits only one end of each component is connected e.g. Christmas tree lights Parallel Circuits both ends of a component are connected e.g. household lighting

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Circuit in Diagram Form _ + battery bulb In a closed circuit, current flows around the loop Current flowing through the filament makes it glow. No Loop No Current No Light current electrons flow opposite the indicated current direction! (repelled by negative terminal)

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copy the following circuits and fill in the missing ammeter readings. ? ? 4A 3A? ? 1A ? 3A 1A

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Different cells produce different voltages. The bigger the voltage supplied by the cell, the bigger the current. measuring voltage Unlike an ammeter, a voltmeter is connected across the components Scientist usually use the term Potential Difference (pd) when they talk about voltage.

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V measuring voltage V V V

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series circuit 1.5V voltage is shared between the components 1.5V 3V

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voltage is the same in all parts of the circuit. 3V parallel circuit 3V

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measuring current & voltage copy the following circuits on the next two slides. complete the missing current and voltage readings. remember the rules for current and voltage in series and parallel circuits.

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measuring current & voltage V V 6V 4A A A a)

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measuring current & voltage V V 6V 4A A A A b)

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answers 3V 6V 4A 6V 4A 2A 4A a)b)

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Voltage, Current, and Power One Volt is a Joule per Coulomb (J/C) One Amp of current is one Coulomb per second (6.24 x10^18 electrons/second). If I have one volt (J/C) and one amp (C/s), then multiplying gives Joules per second (J/s) this is power: J/s = Watts So the formula for electrical power is just: More work is done per unit time the higher the voltage and/or the higher the current P = VI: power = voltage current

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Electric Circuit Builder Applet http://thefusebox.northernpowergrid.com/page/circ uitbuilder.cfm http://thefusebox.northernpowergrid.com/page/circ uitbuilder.cfm Tutorials: http://resources.woodlandsjunior.kent.sch.uk/revision/science/electri city.htm http://resources.woodlandsjunior.kent.sch.uk/revision/science/electri city.htm Quiz: http://www.glencoe.com/qe/science.php?qi=2246 http://www.glencoe.com/qe/science.php?qi=2246

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AC/DC

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Direct Current If the voltage is maintained between two points in a circuit, charge will flow in one direction - from high to low potential. This is called direct current (DC) Battery-powered circuits are dc circuits.

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Alternating Current If the high & low voltage terminals switch locations periodically, the current will flow “back and forth” in the circuit. This is called alternating current (AC). Circuits powered by electrical outlets are AC circuits.

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AC in the US In the US, current changes direction 120 times per second, for a frequency of 60 cycles per second or 60 Hertz. Normal outlet voltage in the US is 110-120 volts, although some large household appliances run on 220-240 volts.

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Converting AC to DC AC is converted to DC using devices called diodes, which allow charges to move in only 1 direction.

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