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Engineering What is engineering? Types of Engineering

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1 Engineering What is engineering? Types of Engineering
Engineering is the art of applying scientific, mathematical and physical principles, experience, judgment, and common sense to construct (or engineer) things meet a specific need and benefit people. Engineers design everything from bridges to heart valves, jet fighters to pollution containment systems. There are various types of engineering work, the largest being chemical, civil, electrical, industrial, mechanical and computer engineering. More specialised engineering fields include aerospace, ocean, nuclear, biological, and environmental engineering. If you are interested in the latest technical developments, you might consider a career as a research engineer. If you have lots of ideas and creativity, design engineering may be for you. Analytical engineers are methodical people working with figures and physical laws. If you like conducting laboratory experiments, look into becoming a development engineer. Sales engineering could be a good choice if you are charismatic, an excellent communicator and enjoy working with people. There are so many aspects to engineering you can choose from! Types of Engineering Engineering is a highly diverse sector comprised of many disciplines. All are highly technical and deal with the development of solutions and new applications. The sections following address the key disciplines of engineering.

2 Chemical Engineering Chemical engineers are involved in all aspects of chemical production, research and design, construction and the operation of industrial plants. Chemical engineers will usually specialise in one area, such as food, pharmaceuticals, heat transfer and energy conversion, petrochemicals (chemicals made from petroleum or natural gas), or consumer products such as plastics, detergents, paint, and synthetic textiles. They develop equipment to manufacture chemicals and related products, conduct research to develop new manufacturing processes, analyse operating procedures, equipment and machinery functions, and make recommendations for reducing processing time and cost. They design equipment for safe storage and transportation of chemical solids, liquids, and gases, as well as design control systems for chemical plants, based upon data from lab experiments and pilot plant operations. Working as part of a team, they coordinate with scientists and other engineers to find solutions for environmental or biomedical problems. Other chemical engineers, who have knowledge and experience in both the scientific and production aspects of the work, may be employed as administrators, project directors, sales engineers, or technical consultants.

3 Mechanical Engineering
Mechanical Engineers will design, produce, maintain and develop machines. Whether building components, engines or entire systems, Mechanical Engineers are bound only by the limits of their imaginations and the laws of physics. Examples of the kind of projects specialist mechanical engineers would work upon include automated assembly line robots, defense systems, railway maintenance vehicles, machine tools, and F1 racing cars. Mechanical Engineers are also involved with the conversion of energy to other forms for example internal combustion engines and large power-generating stations. The field is varied and Mechanical Engineers can work in different areas including: design, testing, manufacturing/plant engineering, sales or teaching. Computers have become an integral part of the mechanical engineer's role. Using CAD systems they can create realistic geometric models of objects and view these models from any angle they choose. Particularly exciting is that engineers can now output these 3D designs to a solid object printer which outputs a plastic/wax prototype in 3D. During the testing process if problems arise the test engineers may recommend design changes, perhaps changes to materials, particular components or manufacturing procedures. Mechanical Engineers design, install and operate complex manufacturing systems comprised of people, materials, robotics and other automated equipment. Working in teams with design and test engineers, they develop the product and the production process concurrently. Sales of sophisticated technical products frequently require knowledge of how the device or system operates. Therefore, Mechanical Engineers are sometimes employed as sales representatives. They solicit new business and furnish technical assistance to customers; they also provide feedback to design engineers on customer problems and needs.

4 Electrical Engineering
Electrical and Electronics engineers are involved in the science that studies elementary particles called Electrons. There is a distinct difference between the two types: Electrical Engineers specialise in the production, transmission and uses of electrical power. Electronics Engineers are more involved with low power applications including radio and television, computers and telephones. When Edison first patented the light bulb electricity was considered a novelty, today it is a necessity. Heating our water and homes, and powering the digital revolution. It is an exciting and profitable industry to be involved with, from the latest communication systems to computer chip evolution, global positioning and data storage. We still rely heavily on fossil fuels for our power, Electrical Engineers work in plant construction and design, and try to source new more efficient energy systems. Many Engineers also write technical manuals, instructional pamphlets, and installation instructions. Electrical and Electronics Engineers frequently present the findings of their work in oral presentations, as well as in technical reports. This requires the keeping of accurate records of all work performed and the ability to clearly communicate findings and results. Much of their time is also spent consulting with specialists in other engineering disciplines and business occupations.

5 Industrial Engineering
Industrial engineers determine the most effective ways for an organisation to use the basic factors of production-people, machines, materials, information, and energy-to make a product or provide a service. They are the link between management goals and operational performance. They are more concerned with increasing productivity through the management of people, methods of business organisation, and technology than the engineers in other specialties, who generally work more with products or processes. To solve organisational, production, and related problems most efficiently, industrial engineers carefully study the product and its requirements, use mathematical methods such as operations research to meet those requirements, and design manufacturing and information systems. Industrial engineers determine which plant location has the best combination of raw materials availability, transportation, and costs. They also develop wage and salary administration systems and job evaluation programs. Industrial Engineers must also understand ergonomics (which seeks to adapt working conditions to suit the worker) and consider how the machines and work environment affect the worker. They design work stations to reduce fatigue and prevent discomfort and work related injuries. They check the fit of chairs, the positioning of equipment, computers and keyboards, and the height of desks and tables. Industrial Engineers are sometimes known as manufacturing engineers, operations or systems analysts, process engineers or facilities engineers. Many industrial engineers move into management positions because the work is closely related.

6 Computer Engineering Computer engineers are either concerned with software or hardware. Software engineers are skilled programmers. The language currently most in demand is C++. Software engineers construct complex solutions, for example defense missile guidance systems, navigation, communication. Software engineers require a very logical thought process and methodical mind. Firstly they have to think of a solution to a problem, and this is a problem because there are usually many many different ways of programming to the same effect. Then after completion, if there is a problem they have to go back and check where the problem is, this could mean pawing over reams and reams of code, isolating and checking each section. Hardware engineers are closely related to electronic engineers, usually dealing solely with computer systems. They design processors, disk drives and monitors. As with other engineers they maintain current technology whilst constantly looking to find new, faster, more efficient ways of doing things. Often working in teams; there are aspects of project planning, coordinating the activities of team members and managing resources, time management, and taking an active role in quality improvement.

7 Civil Engineering Civil Engineers plan, design, and direct the construction and maintenance of roads, roundabouts, bridges, pipelines, airports, amenity infrastructure, and many other types of facilities. They may work in a specific field such as construction, land development, structural or hydraulic design, soil mechanics, waste water treatment, or solid waste management. They identify a need, survey and take measurements, then propose solutions based around the local topography, geology, population habits, etc. They may go into the field to make sure that work in progress conforms to the plans and specifications; they may also inspect existing structures that may need repair or replacement. In transportation, engineers design streets and highways and plan alterations to improve traffic flow. They may also prepare reports on environmental impact. Civil engineers may further specialise in a particular part of the process such as improving traffic signs, planning and designing impact devices, or studying pedestrian traffic. Others study population growth and industrial trends to determine future transportation needs.

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