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Scalability, from a database systems perspective Dave Abel

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www.csiro.au Roadmap Scale of what? A case study: 2D to kd; Some algorithms for kd similarity joins; So …

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www.csiro.au Size matters (for joins) Number of sources; Number of points; Number of dimensions. Lets use eAstronomy as an example.

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www.csiro.au Number of Sources Key issues: Heterogeneity (despite standards); The added sophistication of a more general solution. Optimisation typically flounders through inability to reliably estimate sizes of interim sets; But does it really matter?.

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www.csiro.au Number of points massive usually means that the data set is too large to fit in real memory; 10**7 seems to define massive in the database world; Usually target O(logN + k) for queries and O(NlogN + k) for joins, in disk I/O.

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www.csiro.au Number of dimensions Most database access methods are aimed at a single attribute/dimension. QEP deals with multiple atomic operations; Relatively recent interest in search and joins in high-dimensional space: data mining, image databases, complex objects. Surprises for the migrants from geospatial database. The curse of dimensionality (which the mathematicians have known all along).

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www.csiro.au Some simple algebra N d = n or = (n/N) 1/d So, approaches 1 as d increases. The traditional approaches of restricting the search space fail.

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www.csiro.au But 2d is still interesting Location is often significant: Geospatial Information Systems (aka Geographic Information Systems) are well- established; Many Astronomy challenges deal with 2d databases (although the coordinate system has its tricks). Issues of sheer size make it worthwhile to consider solutons specific to 2d.

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www.csiro.au The Sweep Algorithms for Key Operations Neighbour finding, aka fixed-radius all-neighbours, aka similarity join; Catalogue matching, aka fuzzy join; Nearest Neighbour; K-Nearest Neighbours.

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www.csiro.au The sweep algorithm for neighbour finding/similarity join Active List

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www.csiro.au Extend to kNN 1. Find an upper bound on dist to NN 2.Determine lower bounds on active list 3.Determine the NNs

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www.csiro.au WIP: preliminaries SDSS/Personal: 155K points, 12 seconds; Tycho2: 2.4M points; k = 10, 1000 seconds; k = 4, 700 seconds. ?? For large data sets. High dependence on density of points. But it will be dismal for high-dimensional problems.

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www.csiro.au Why Dismal? The active list is a (d-1)-dimensional data set; The epsilon for the active list is high, so the list is large; We have reduced a join to a nasty nested-loop with a query innermost.

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www.csiro.au kD Similarity Joins & KNN bounding boxes (bad news after d = 8!); Quadtree techniques; Epsilon Grid Order; Gorder: EGO + dimensionality reduction + some tweaks on selectivity.

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www.csiro.au Epsilon Grid Order 2,3,2

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www.csiro.au The lessons Disk I/O optimisation is almost separate from CP optimisation; Selectivity is critical (ie avoidance of distance computations); High data dependence: reliance on the non-uniform distributions of real data sets; How generally applicable are the results?

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www.csiro.au Best Practice? G-order from Nat Univ Singapore: 0.58M points, d= 10; t =1800 seconds; S = 0.07; 30K points, d = 64; t = 150; S = 0.3; Probably about 10x better than a brute force nested loops; Effects of dimensionality are low.

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www.csiro.au Final Thoughts Where is the split between the memory- resident and disk-based families? Does the pure form of the problem ignore the Physics or other underlying models? kNN is inherently expensive. Is it a classical problem? Parallelisation (with fresh approaches)? Are we near a plateau for similarity join and kNN with large data sets?

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