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Formal Properties of Language. Grammar Morphology Syntax Semantics.

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Presentation on theme: "Formal Properties of Language. Grammar Morphology Syntax Semantics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Formal Properties of Language

2 Grammar Morphology Syntax Semantics

3 Morphology Is concerned with how phonemes are combined by language into larger units Words: one or more morphemes

4 Morphological Example Cow Cow- boy Affixes: bound morphemes: dis --- dis-like

5 Syntax rules that determine how words should be combined to make sense to speakers of a language (English) word order critical for meaning (you, are, and there) There you are You are there Are you there?

6 In Romance languages Order of words not important Spanish: Tu estabas ahi You were there

7 Mandarin, Chinese Meaning primarily determined by tone: Ma High= Mother Rising=horse Falling=scolding

8 Exceptions to syntax rules Eat Ate eated

9 Morphological Analysis Morphology: the analysis of the structure of words Morphemes=words Cat or Cat-S /P/ /I/ /N/ = PIN

10 Roots (stems) and Affixes Roots: they have meaning in themselves cat,good, happy Affixes:Are attached to roots (express grammatical meanings) un-, -s, -ing, -ly Three kinds of affixes: Prefixes: un-happy suffixes: happy-ness and infixes

11 Morphological Typologies Classification of languages according to how they structure words out of morphemes Isolating languages: few morphemes, simple method: prefix and suffix (English) Agglutinating languages: words containing many morphemes, highly regular rules (Turkish) Synthetic or polysynthetic: Words containing many morphemes, very complex rules (Inuktitut)

12 Qasirrsarrvigssarsingitluinarpug “someone did not find a completely suitable resting place”

13 Grammatical meanings Tense (time of the event’s occurrence) I visited the zoo Aspect (manner in which an events occurs) I am visiting the zoo Mode (likelihood of an event’s occurrence) I could visit the zoo

14 Syntax Is an analytical tool that linguists utilize to study the structure of sentences, including construction of phrases, clauses, and the order of words Example The dog chased the cat The cat chased the dog

15 Semantics The study of meaning in language, including the analysis of meanings of words and sentences Types of meanings produced by language: situational, social and cultural

16 Language rules over regularalizations Past tense of regular verbs (english)by adding ed as in worked I gave I gived I took I taked

17 Linguistic interference Idiomatic expressions En este momento (literal translation) at this moment (Instead of now) Drive down the parkway and park on the driveway. Chop the tree down and cut the pieces up. His nose is running and his feet smell.


19 Grammatical meanings Tense: I visited the zoo aspect

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