Morphology Is concerned with how phonemes are combined by language into larger units Words: one or more morphemes
Morphological Example Cow Cow- boy Affixes: bound morphemes: dis --- dis-like
Syntax rules that determine how words should be combined to make sense to speakers of a language (English) word order critical for meaning (you, are, and there) There you are You are there Are you there?
In Romance languages Order of words not important Spanish: Tu estabas ahi You were there
Mandarin, Chinese Meaning primarily determined by tone: Ma High= Mother Rising=horse Falling=scolding
Morphological Analysis Morphology: the analysis of the structure of words Morphemes=words Cat or Cat-S /P/ /I/ /N/ = PIN
Roots (stems) and Affixes Roots: they have meaning in themselves cat,good, happy Affixes:Are attached to roots (express grammatical meanings) un-, -s, -ing, -ly Three kinds of affixes: Prefixes: un-happy suffixes: happy-ness and infixes
Morphological Typologies Classification of languages according to how they structure words out of morphemes Isolating languages: few morphemes, simple method: prefix and suffix (English) Agglutinating languages: words containing many morphemes, highly regular rules (Turkish) Synthetic or polysynthetic: Words containing many morphemes, very complex rules (Inuktitut)
Qasirrsarrvigssarsingitluinarpug “someone did not find a completely suitable resting place”
Grammatical meanings Tense (time of the event’s occurrence) I visited the zoo Aspect (manner in which an events occurs) I am visiting the zoo Mode (likelihood of an event’s occurrence) I could visit the zoo
Syntax Is an analytical tool that linguists utilize to study the structure of sentences, including construction of phrases, clauses, and the order of words Example The dog chased the cat The cat chased the dog
Semantics The study of meaning in language, including the analysis of meanings of words and sentences Types of meanings produced by language: situational, social and cultural
Language rules over regularalizations Past tense of regular verbs (english)by adding ed as in worked I gave I gived I took I taked
Linguistic interference Idiomatic expressions En este momento (literal translation) at this moment (Instead of now) Drive down the parkway and park on the driveway. Chop the tree down and cut the pieces up. His nose is running and his feet smell.