Presentation on theme: "BRAZILIAN OVERVIEW ON KEY ISSUES Brazil UK Startup Meeting Oxford Brookes – May 18 2010."— Presentation transcript:
BRAZILIAN OVERVIEW ON KEY ISSUES Brazil UK Startup Meeting Oxford Brookes – May
Structure Some general features of the Brazilian urban and regional development trajectory Territorial and productive restructuring and the emergence of new state spaces – some observations on Brazil Issues for discussion – the network
Brazilian cities Population range No. of MunicipalitiesPopulationGDP More than , – , – ,34 Less than ,09 Total ,21 % of Municipalities % of population% GDP 1,10%34,86%48,71% 9,08%30,62%30,47% 17,87%16,30%10,43% 71,96%18,22%10,39% 100,00%
Concentration, polarization and uneven development
The Brazilian UrbanNetwork – (IBGE)
Human Development % of people older than 15, with less than 4 years of school - (Base – 2000)
Participation of cities in the GDP (2006) 25% of the national GDP is located in 5 cities 50% of the national GDP is located In 50 municípios
75% of the GDP in 300 cities85% of the GDP in 751 cities Participação dos Municípios no PIB Brasileiro
95% of the GDP in 2202 cities99% of the GDP in 4205 cities Participação dos Municípios no PIB Brasileiro
Participation (%) of the main city networks in the GDP, agro- bussiness, industry and services – 2002/2006
Economic development has spread over the last decades, but there are limits to macro-spatial deconcentration outside the south-eastern/southern states
Red dots: Intense Dynamism (% growth of city GDP)
Red dots: very low income cities with very high dynamism NOME_UFMUNIC MaranhãoAnapurus MaranhãoBom Jardim MaranhãoCentro Novo do Maranhão MaranhãoIgarapé do Meio MaranhãoLuís Domingues MaranhãoPirapemas MaranhãoPorto Franco MaranhãoSerrano do Maranhão PiauíAssunção do Piauí PiauíBaixa Grande do Ribeiro PiauíCurrais PiauíManoel Emídio PiauíSanta Filomena PiauíSanto Antônio de Lisboa PiauíSebastião Leal SergipeCapela BahiaBarrocas BahiaSátiro Dias Minas GeraisGrão Mogol Mato GrossoCurvelândia
Red dots - Very high income cities with a very high level of dynamism dinâmicos NOME_UFMUNIC Rio Grande do NortGuamaré Minas GeraisAraporã Minas GeraisNova Ponte Minas GeraisOuro Branco Minas GeraisSão João Batista do Glória Minas GeraisSão José da Barra Espírito SantoAnchieta Rio de JaneiroArmação dos Búzios Rio de JaneiroCampos dos Goytacazes Rio de JaneiroQuissamã São PauloAlumínio São PauloAriranha São PauloEstrela d'Oeste São PauloJaguariúna São PauloMotuca São PauloSão Caetano do Sul Santa CatarinaTreze Tílias
Red dots: High income cities with dynamism
Very low Income Cities With dynamism These are 454 cities concentrated in the NE states and the Amazonia
Other features of the urban development trajectory Growth and increasing density of the periphery of the metropolitan areas, state capitals and larger urban poles in the country, characterized by a pattern of unequal acess to land and urban services, and environmental degradation Deterioration and derelict areas in the central areas of larger cities and metropolitan areas The opening up of new urban-peri-urban rural frontiers in the central–eastern and Amazone regions (agrobusiness etc.) triggers environmental and land based conflicts, lack of urbanity and conflicts with indigenous population
Other features of the urban development trajectory (ctd) Urban economic growth and population inflow of cities located in resource rich areas (minerals, agro-business, petrol), frequently generating environmemntal degradation, intense land based conflicts and relocation of indigenous communities Urban economic growth of city regions that polarize, both along the coastal zones as well in the interior regions of the country (satelite – platforms?) – cities located along the Amazon river, along the highway Brasília-Cuiabá-Porto Velho-Rio Branco, Belém-Brasília and, more recently, the highway, Cuiabá-Santarém.
Territorial and productive restructuring and the emergence of new state spaces – some observations on the Brazilian scenario
From Spatial keynesianism...
To rescaled, competitive state spatial regimes....?
Brazil in the 1990s Opening up of the Brazilian macroeconomic framework, without compensating industrial, technological and regional development policies Colapse of the national developmental regime Neo-localist regimes, tax wars, regulatory downgrading, federal government laissez-faire Competitive federal relations (states, cities)
More recently, however..... Advances in federal housing and urban development policies – creation of the ministry, statute of the city, institutionalization of participatory structures (conselho das cidades), substantial increases in financial resources for the housing and urban development sector (PAC, Minha casa minha vida); Metropolitan agenda is being taken up again (new law on public consortia etc.)
Nevertheless, progress is said to be slow.... Application of the statute of the city is slow – vested interests in real estate markets Federal programs and financial resources often bypass the institutional and participatory structures that have been created; There is no national program for metropolitan governance
Issues for the network and the research Urban environmental justice – combining the urban/housing and the green agenda in an inclusive and sustainable manner – last few years – after convergence there are increasing conflicts (e.g environmental versus the housing movements); Metropolitan governance and nation building in a post – keynesian scenario? – going beyond socio-institutional engineering – multi-scalar policies; Regional development in an increasingly fragmented national space economy – archipelago economies in resource rich frontier regions – urban-peri-urban rural linkages without a national framework – from macro-regional to new regionalist regional policies?
Last but not least.... Linking the urban policy agenda with climate change Limits, potentials, threats and risks – what is the role of cities in the debate (the scalar issue); How to set goals and targets Instruments – economic and regulatory instruments – leakages associated with city activism; Welfare economic considerations – where to tax (production chains and resource intensive regions)/how to evaluate policy instruments? Political economy framework – who gains/who loses?