Presentation on theme: "GLOBALISATION AND URBAN EQUITY UK-Brazil network Initiation work shop 18 May 2010."— Presentation transcript:
GLOBALISATION AND URBAN EQUITY UK-Brazil network Initiation work shop 18 May 2010
Globalisation and world city formation conceptual and methodological issues How do we define economic globalisation? Global as opposed to national markets Qualitative shift in the capitalist mode of production A condition of late capitalism and new imperialism How and to what degree are cities actually involved in the globalisation process? How much is rhetoric, how much is fact? World cities or a world of cities? City regions and network of cities What measures do we use? E.g., GaWC and organisational measure of relations based on geographical scope of producer services Intrenationalisation of trade and capital How can we best capture both diversity of processes in cities and how they link into a globalised world economy?
The new city Economy As junctions of flow Prominence of high value added, knowledge based growth New international division of labour and global industrial shifts Growth corridors, export processing and industrial hubs from Juarez to Shenzhen and Jakarta to Sao Paulo But what does this mean in terms of local economic development? E.g., Bangalore emphasising IT led development but what happens to the old industries (car parts, textiles, electrical) which are much more labour intensive (90%) and embedded within the local economy, On the other hand is internal restructuring inevitable and cities must be better prepared to deal with the consequences? E.g., textile industry in Mumbai! What new opportunities are created in terms of local income generation and how sustainable are these? Direct and indirect impact on labour relations and working conditions? Direct - perhaps more organised and greater scrutiny with better wages Indirect - linked to the informal economy, unregulated and sweatshop conditions but still providing income generating opportunities!?
Changing governance 1 Rescaling governance and regulatory practices downwards and upwards – a process of glocalization!? Global-local nexus leading to specific and different outcomes at the local level What are the local policy responses in terms of economic, social and environmental development? What are the spatial manifestations of these policies? E.g., Expansion and redevelopment of CBDs, Abandoned industrial areas, industrial, commercial and residential suburbanisation, Growth of malls and modern shopping facilities!? Growth of Mega cities and extended metropolitan regions
Changing governance 2 Growth of real estate markets and increased commercialisation of land Squeezing the lower income groups from access to land and increased segregation/informality! Eviction, exclusion and insufficient compensation! But can real estate markets actually be a force for social integration? - Examples from Santiago, Mexico City Can increased commercialisation of land also provide income and livelihood opportunities for the lower income groups!? How can we enable lower income groups to benefit more from commercialisation processes?
Changing governance 3 The balance between decentralisation and effective management. What is the level of subsidiarity and how can we avoid balkanisation at the metropolitan level? Examples China, Eastern Europe, India The institutional framework and role of social actors in producing social space (politicians, developers, financiers, firms, citizens, planners, NGOs,…) Who has the right to the city, not only right of access and share of resources but the right to shape the city? Who for example decides that Bangalore should be another Singapore? What is the impact on segregation and inequality?
Changing governance 4 How are these impacting the environment? Loss of agricultural land, increased energy use, pollution of land, water and air, etc… but can it be turned around, e.g., Cubatao? Related issues: The Brown Vs the Green Agenda LED as the best tool for environmental protection!? Empty stomachs more concerned with survival than the environment
Changing governance 4 Can integrated strategic planning, e.g., CDS, make a difference? Or are they another form of extension of neoliberal growth model to developing countries?
Points for discussion Conceptual issues – What is the most appropriate framework for understanding role of cities in economic globalisation in Brazil and UK? What should be our point of departure? What does economic globalisation mean in terms of local economic development, asset consolidation and livelihood opportunities for low income groups? What are the spatial manifestations of this particularly in terms of contested claims to land? What are the impacts on the environment, water and energy needs? How does the operation of real estate markets and actors impact on these claims? How does the governance process mediate and facilitate these contesting requirements? What are the enabling institutional processes and support mechanisms for low income households and SME local firms? What are the important determinants for government, civil society and business intervention? What is the role of strategic planning for a more effective multi-level governance framework?
Global Network Connectivity 175 firms – 526 cities (Pain, 2009) RankGNC2008 1London100 8Shanghai Seoul Buenos Aires Mumbai Kuala Lumpur Warsaw Sao Paulo Sao Paulo Buenos Aires44.56