Presentation on theme: "Japan: A single country case study Session 6. Single country case study: method Globalisation Education (History & context) Integrated Studies (Ethnographic."— Presentation transcript:
Single country case study: method Globalisation Education (History & context) Integrated Studies (Ethnographic research) Issues arising (Analysis & synthesis) The national Tensions (Vertical & horizontal) The local Internationalisation (History & context) Citizenship (ethnographic research) Issues arising (analysis & synthesis
History of Japanese education: context Edo period – Confucian and Buddhist teachings 1603-1867. Period of Nationalism – Meiji Restoration led by the Emperor. Compulsory education introduced based on the central principle of Sushin (self- discipline). Period of Democracy 1945- centralized education system imposed by USA, influences of Dewey, followed by conservative acquisition of knowledge during economic boom 70s-80s.
1999 Reforms 1.Sources of the reforms 2.The aim of Integrated Studies 3. An evaluation of the use of ethnographic research to establish the impact of and issues arising from the introduction of integrated Studies (Bjork 2009)
Tensions 1.Tensions between progressives, traditionalists and pragmatists 2. Tensions between maintaining academic success and fulfilling a strong public feeling that Japan needs warm and humane schools that better attend to the psychological and interpersonal problems of individual students (Bjork, p29)
Issues arising The introduction of Integrated Studies has forced education stakeholders to re- examine their core beliefs about: 1.The purpose of schooling 2.The attitudes and skills that students need to succeed in contemporary society 3.The responsibilities of teachers (Bjork 2009, p24)
Internationalisation: context Historical reasons for ambivalent attitudes to the outside world (McCullough 2008. p21) Tradition of the collective and the total humanity of the teacher (Kimura & Iwata 2007) The economic need for Japan to attract workers from overseas to alleviate the consequences of a shrinking population (McCullough, 2008, p21)
Citizenship Education Sushin (self-discipline) in the Period of Nationalism 1868-1945 Dotoku (the path of virtue) in the Period of Democracy 1950s-80s Moral education in the current Period of Democarcy: self-awareness, relation to others and relation to the group Social Studies – Geog, Hist. and Ethics Social education – in everyday life
Issues arising 1.How do teachers give children enough time to think critically about society and express opinions while ensuring that they are learning solid facts? (see Tanaka 2009). 2.Does the emphasis on homogeneity restrict the development of global citizenship learning? (McCullough, 2008, p32). 3.Should Citizenship lessons be used to promote traditional Japanese values? (McCullough 2008, p32).
Conclusions How valid are the methods used in this single country case study approach? What contribution does the single country case study approach make to the methodology of comparative education? Are there particular case study methods here which might be replicated in a different context in your assignment?
Bibliography Bjork, C. (2009) Local Implementation of Japans Integrated studies reform: a preliminary analysis of efforts to decentralise the curriculum, Comparative Education, 45 (1) pp 23-44. Cave, P. (2010) Education and reform in Japan in the 1990s: individuality and other uncertainties, Comparative Education, 37 (2) 173-191. Goodman, R (2003) The why, what and how of education reform in Japan, in Goodman, R & Phillips, D., Can the Japanese change their education system? Oxford Symposium.
Bibliography continued Kimura, H. & Iwata, Y. (2007) The historical trend of teacher identity in Japan: focusing on educational reforms and the occupational culture of teachers, Hitotsubashi Journal of Social Studies, 39 pp 19-42. McCullough, D. (2008) Moral and social education in Japanese schools: conflicting concepts of citizenship, Citizenship Teaching and Learning, 4 (1) 21-34 Tanaka, N. (2009) Research about the nature of citizenship in Japan, in Ross (Ed) Human rights and citizenship education, proceedings of the 11 th CiCE conference London, CiCE, pp 240-250. Wilson, K.(2001) Doing comparative education research, Symposium.