4Definitions of organisational culture “The norms that inform people what is acceptable and what is not, the dominant values that the organization cherishes above others, the basic assumptions and beliefs that are shared by members of the organization, the ‘rules’ of the game that must be observed if one is to get along and be accepted as a member, the philosophy that guides the organization in dealing with its employees and its clients” (Owens, 1987, pp )“How we do things around here” (or “the way things work when nobody is looking”)
5Definitions of organisational culture “The collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one organisation from another” (Hofstede, 1991, p.180)Organisational culture appears to be shared, based on values and beliefs, results in rules or norms of behaviour (not always openly stated), and is often unconscious, hidden, assumed (Schein, 1985; Owens, 1987; Garratt, 1991; Kezar and Eckel, 2002).
8Aspects of organisational culture (Johnson, 1992, in Mullins, 2002, pp 805-806) Routines: how people behave towards others inside and outside the organisation; how things are doneRituals: special events that show what is considered importantStories: told by people in the organisation and indicate special events and personalities, such as successes, failures, heroes, villains, mavericksSymbols, such as logos, commonly used language, which act as a shorthand representation of the nature of the organisationPower structures: the most powerful individuals in the organisation (may be particular positions or functions)Organisational structures: reflect power structures and include both formal and less formal systemsControl systems: the measurement and reward systems that emphasise what is important, such as performance management, OfSTED inspections.
11Corporate culturesThe degree of risk associated with the organisation’s activitiesThe speed at which organisations and their employees receive feedback on the success of decisions or strategies (Deal and Kennedy, 1982)
14Organisational cultures (Harrison, 1972, in Handy, 1976) Power (where power is exercised by a dominant leader)
15Handy’s (1976) organisational cultures Role (where there is a strong emphasis on job hierarchy and status, eg a bureaucracy)
16Handy’s (1976) organisational cultures Task (where achievement of a goal is paramount)
17Handy’s (1976) organisational cultures Person (where the organisation exists to meet the needs of its members).
18Academic cultures (Bergquist, 1992, in Kezar and Eckel, 2002) Collegial culture (based on academic disciplines, valuing scholarly engagement)Managerial culture (focused on the goals and purposes of the institution)Developmental culture (based on the personal and professional growth of institutional staff)Negotiating culture (valuing equitable and egalitarian policies and procedures).
19Disciplinary cultures (Becher, 1994 in Becher and Trowler, 2001) PureAppliedHardPure sciences: atomistic; concerned with universals; impersonal; value-freeTechnologies: pragmatic; concerned with mastery of physical environment; uses both qualitative and quantitative approachesSoftHumanities and pure social sciences: holistic; concerned with particulars; personal; value-ladenApplied social sciences: utilitarian; concerned with semi-professional practice; uses "case" studies and case law to a large extent
20School cultures (Hargreaves, 1994, p.16) A formal school culture, characterised by pressure on students to achieve learning goals but weak social cohesion between staff and studentsA welfarist culture, where relations between staff and students are relaxed and friendly but there is little academic pressureA hothouse culture, which pressurises staff and students to participate in all aspects of school life, academic and socialA survivalist culture, characterised by poor social relations and low academic achievement.
21High value-added schools (Hobby, 2004) Measuring and monitoring targets and test results (1)A hunger for improvement – high hopes and expectations (18)Raising capability – helping people learn – laying foundations for later success (2)Focusing on the value added – holding hope for every child – every gain a victory (20)Promoting excellence – pushing the boundaries of achievement – world class (23)Making sacrifices to put pupils first (26)
22‘Sinking schools’ (Hobby, 2004) Measuring and monitoring targets and test results (1)Focusing on the value added – holding hope for every child – every gain a victory (20)Recognising personal circumstances – making allowances – toleration – it’s the effort that counts (9)Warmth – humour – repartee – feet on the ground (16)Experimenting – trying new things – looking to the next big idea (12)Working together – learning from each other – sharing resources and ideas – investing in others (8)
23Cultures linked to improvement (Stoll and Fink, 1996) 1. Shared goals: “we know where we’re going”2. Responsibility for success: “we cannot fail”3. Collegiality: “we’re in this together”4. Continuous improvement “we can get better”5. Lifelong learning: “learning is for everyone”6. Risk taking: “we learn by trying something new”7. Support: “there’s always someone there to help”8. Mutual respect: “everyone has something to offer”9. Openness: “we can discuss our differences”10. Celebration and humour: “we can feel good about ourselves”
24Improving school cultures “Expectations of work and conduct are high – the principal’s expectations of staff and the teachers’ of students. Yet these standards are not perceived to be unreasonable; everyone is supported in striving for them and rewarded for reaching them. For both teachers and students, school is a demanding but enjoyable place to be” (Hargreaves, 1994, p.11)
26National cultures Individualism - collectivism: The degree to which people see themselves or their collective group as more important.Power distance:In high power distance cultures, employees tend to prefer their managers to lead visibly, and paternal-autocratic leadership styles are seen as caring. In low power distance cultures, the opposite is true; employees express a preference for consultative management styles.Uncertainty avoidance:The degree to which people feel threatened by uncertain or unknown situations.
27National Cultures Masculinity-femininity: High masculinity cultures value status, challenge and achievement, while high femininity cultures value good working relationships and co-operation.Confucian dynamism (long-term vs. short-term orientation):Long-term orientation prefers persistence, thrift, ordering relationships by, and observing, status while a more short-term orientation favours personal stability, protecting “face”, respect for tradition.Hofstede (1991)
28Organisational culture Formed by a network of meanings that are both shared and contestedGoes beyond the surface levelDynamic and messy (in other words it is continually shifting and cannot be contained in a tidy way)Has multiple levels, from specific interactions to broader societal traditions (Alvesson, 2002).
29VideoWatch the video and then answer the following questions:To what extent do you agree with the views expressed in the video?How far do you think these views are reflected in the literature on organisational culture?
30Organisational structure “Structure is the pattern of relationships among positions in the organisation and among members of the organisation. Structure makes possible the application of the process of management and creates a framework of order and command through which the activities of the organisation can be planned, organised, directed and controlled” (Mullins, 2002, p.530).
31Hierarchy“One hears a great deal today about ‘the end of the hierarchy’. This is blatant nonsense. In any institution, there has to be a final authority, that is, a ‘boss’ – someone who can make the final decisions and who can expect them to be obeyed.” (Drucker, 1999, p.11)
32Span of controlThe span of control is the number of people who report to a single manager: too wide, and it is difficult for one person to supervise that number of subordinates; too narrow and middle managers proliferate while individuals feel too closely supervised (Mullins, 2002).
33Scalar chainThe scalar chain is the vertical chain of command: for morale, effective decision-making and communication, there should be as few levels as possible in the scalar chain (Mullins, 2002).
34The flattened pyramid“In British schools, there has been a move towards a flattened pyramidal structure, with a large group of middle managers having delegated authority. This structure supports a more collegial exercise of power” (Coleman and Earley, 2005, p.61).
35ReferencesAlvesson, M. (2002) Understanding organisational culture. London: SageBecher, T. and Trowler, P. (2001). Academic tribes and territories. Buckingham: Open University Press/SRHEColeman, M. and Earley, P. (2005) Leadership and Management in Education Oxford: Oxford University PressDeal, T.E. and Kennedy, A.A. (1982) Corporate cultures: the rites and rituals of corporate life Harmondsworth: PenguinDrucker, P.F. (1999) Management challenges for the 21st century London: Butterworth HeinemannGarratt, B. (1991) “The Cultural Contexts” in Mumford, A. Handbook of Management Development. Aldershot: GowerHandy, C (1976) Understanding organisations Harmondsworth: PenguinHargreaves, A. (1994) Changing Teachers, Changing Times. London: CassellHobby, R. (2004) A Culture for Learning. London: The Hay Group Management available from:Hofstede, G. (1991) Cultures and Organisations, London: Harper Collins
36ReferencesJohnson G., Scholes K. (1993). Exploring Corporate Strategy, 3rd edn, Hemel Hempstead: Prentice HallKezar, A. and Eckel, P.D. (2002)’The effect of institutional culture on change strategies in Higher Education’ The Journal of Higher Education Vol.73, no.4, ppMullins, L. (2002) Management and organisational behaviour Harlow: Pearson EducationOwens, R.G. (1987) Organisational behaviour in education MA: Allyn and BaconParsons, T. ‘Some ingredients of a general theory of formal organization’ in Litterer, J.A. (1980) Organizations: Structure and Behaviour. London: WileySchein, E.H. (1985) Organizational culture and leadership San Fransisco: Jossey-BassStoll, L. and Fink, D. (1996) Changing our schools. Buckingham: Open University PressTierney, W.G. (1987) ‘The semiotic aspects of leadership: an ethnographic perspective’ American Journal of Semiotics, vol.5, no.2, ppTierney, W.G. (1991). ‘Organisational culture in higher education: defining the essentials’ in Peterson, M. (ed) ASHE reader on organization and governance. Needham Heights, MA: Ginn Press