Presentation on theme: "Germany and Scotland November 2010. Germany – another complex story! Commitment to planning, with good planning being done all over, above all at local."— Presentation transcript:
Germany and Scotland November 2010
Germany – another complex story! Commitment to planning, with good planning being done all over, above all at local level. Other parts of system progressively less impressive as go upwards. Federal state planning still some force, important in some cases for wind energy planning, strong on water framework directive plans.
German federal planning 1 Though not overall terribly impressive, there are messages. Great value of data and research, with well resourced national bodies like BBSR and ARL, continuing intelligence on what is happening to the country, especially on overall central European developments.
German federal planning 2 Also that even in soft form, some national framework making can have value – use to frame debates, to encourage pilot projects, spread good practice, link to the intelligence function (Leitbilder approaches of 1993, 1995 and 2006). Worthy of study, as the German soft mode is the maximum plausible in most countries.
Transport Leitbild 1993
2006 economy Leitbild
North Sea German plan 2009
German federal planning 3 BUT – real weaknesses are apparent, and can infect any soft national approach. Federalism and federal weakness has torpedoed much chance of stronger transport and energy spatial policy making. Competitive regionalism often rules. Liberalisation compounds this – energy and transport companies left as the core powers.
Large scale energy change No real forces guiding change beyond the four large energy corporations who control electricity transmission in Germany. No explicit federal level energy planning, though plenty of non spatial strategies for each sector. Makes long term linking up of generation and transmission, alongside renewable sources, very problematic.
Energy company zones
Germany energy generation
Transmission lines development suggestions 2005
German transport industry structure Rail run mainly by vertically integrated but private company, DB AG, which has majority of its profits now outside rail. Roads system run mainly by federal government, with historically high investment and planning. Ports and airports run by states and privately, with limited effective federal steering.
German transport planning Bundesverkehrswegeplan is main instrument – federal transport plan, covering high level road and rail investment. But though allows expert and public overview every few years (last one 2003), has many drawbacks, and has often served as a machine for road building, with weak intermodal approach overall.
Scotland – a fresh approach NPF1 in 2004 and NPF2 in 2009 show new thinking on national planning. Remains mostly light touch, to allow other actors lots of scope. But because is effectively at regional level, and with significant collective powers, can work as effective dialogue, not top down.
NPF2 strategy diagram
NPF2 economic development and community regeneration
NPF2 transmission system reinforcements
Scotland – NPF2 and the national designations NPF2 was statutory, and incorporates the projects seen as of national significance. 14 designated, on essentially political (cabinet) criteria. A novel way of deciding on major projects. But where a consensus does not exist, will still be problematic – example of campaign on coal fired Hunterston power station.
Scotland national designations
Judgement on new Scottish system Developing nicely, though a thin line as to whether is an effective guide to lower level planning – probably works because all so close – only 46 councils in Scotland. National designations not totally convincing, whether can be seen to be logically linked to the strategy. Whether the Dutch key national decision system might not be better, for the few genuinely national projects – e.g. second Forth crossing.
Germany and Scotland Absolutely different contexts, but each has interesting features, one for the big country situation, one for the more regional scale. Scotland impressive on energy, which is high Scottish government priority. Scotland starting to show the value of national level planning, though plenty of scope for development.