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School of Technology 1 P00471 Software Production Internationalisation David Lightfoot.

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1 School of Technology 1 P00471 Software Production Internationalisation David Lightfoot

2 2 School of Technology Spelling Internationalisation (United Kingdom) Internationalization (America) I18N – get it?

3 3 School of Technology International Standards International Standards Organization (ISO)

4 4 School of Technology National Standards bodies British Standards Institute – BSI Association française de normalisation – afnor Deutsches Institut für Normung e. V. – DIN American National Standards Institute – ANSI European Committee for Standardization / Europäisches Komitee für Normung / Comité Européen de Normalisation – CEN …

5 5 School of Technology International standards in computing Many programming languages have official standards: ANSI C (ISO C) BSI Pascal ISO Modula-2 … Very important for portability and for being sure of meaning of programs. de facto standards – unofficial, but everybody uses them

6 6 School of Technology Culturally Dependent Data Messages Labels on GUI component Online help Sounds Color (sic) Graphics Icons Date Times Numbers Currencies Measurements Phone numbers Honorifics and personal titles Postal addresses Page layouts From

7 7 School of Technology Messages, Labels on GUI components, Online help, sounds 6170 languages in world 375 million people speak English as second language Second most spoken language in world Countries in which English is spoken as first language by a majority of the population: Antigua, Australia, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Canada, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Ireland, Jamaica, New Zealand, St Christopher and Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent, South Africa, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom, United States of America

8 8 School of Technology English is officially spoken in: Anguilla, Antigua, Bahamas, Barbados, Belau, Bermuda, Botswana, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Antigua, Australia, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bhutan, Botswana, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cameroon, Cook Islands, Dominica, Ethiopia, Falkland Islands, Fiji, Gambia, Ghana, Gibraltar, Grenada, Guam, Guyana, Hong Kong, India, Ireland, Jamaica, Jersey, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Malaysia, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Micronesia, Midway Islands, Montserrat, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, New Zealand, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Island, Pakistan, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Pitcairn, Puerto Rico, Samoa, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, St Helena, St Kitts-Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Swaziland, Tokelau, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, US Virgin Islands, Uganda, United Kingdom, United States, Vanuatu, Wake Island, Western Samoa, Zambia, Zambia, Zimbabwe

9 9 School of Technology English – degree of use It is claimed that one out of every five people on earth can speak English to some level of competence. ( More than 80% of home pages on the Web are in English, while the next greatest, German, has only 4.5% and Japanese 3.1%. Proportion of email in English: between 60% and 85%.

10 10 School of Technology Languages: number of speakers Mandarin Chinese (837,000,000) English (370,000,000) Spanish (300,000,000) Bengali (189,000,000) Hindi/Urdu (182,000,000) Arabic (174,950,000) Portuguese (170,000,000) Russian (170,000,000) Japanese (125,000,000) German (98,000,000) Javanese (79,000,000) French (75,000,000)

11 11 School of Technology Not speak English claims that about one fifth of population of planet can speak English. Generous estimate – probably fewer. So, more than 80% of world population do not speak English! Why should they? Moral: we'd better be able to internationalise our products!

12 12 School of Technology Colour Colours do not have the same significance in all cultures: Example: in United Kingdom Black – death White – purity Red – danger … Japan White – death …

13 13 School of Technology Icons Icon language standardised (ISO) to some extent, but check for cultural differences ISO hazard symbols

14 14 School of Technology Dates Millennium (Y2K) problem Luckily world did not end! But it was a big problem – we did not use enough digits for year. Dates are ambiguous: When was 9/11/2001? Leads to genuine confusion and error. Problems with dates did not go away after millennium Got worse!: when is (was) 4/5/6? At least in the last millennium we knew which bit was the year (well after 1931 we did)

15 15 School of Technology ISO Date ISO date format: yyyy–mm–dd examples: 2006–11–23 2001–09–11 Advantages In right order: big unit first Can't be confused with other date format Sorts correctly as string Matches Chinese date order

16 16 School of Technology Time 24-hour clock or 12-hour clock 12-hour clock used in: Albania United States, Canada (not Québec), South Africa, Zimbabwe, Australia, New Zealand, Philippines, Belize, Trinidad, Jamaica, Caribbean but not United Kingdom (official) Greece Mexico, parts of South America East Africa 24-hour clock used: almost everywhere else (for official purposes)

17 17 School of Technology Time zones USA – 10 times zones China – one time zone Zulu time (or Z time, is UTC) UTC – Universal Time Coordinated, formerly called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) British secret service always works on Zulu time (source: Agent Clocksin – Professor William Clocksin), as does diplomatic service Shipping uses Zulu time.

18 18 School of Technology Problems with times (midnight, 12-hour clock) Hand in time 12:00pm (midday, midnight?) US Greyhound long-distance bus timetables: boldface for pm; hard to distinguish on a photocopy or fax. So when does the bus from New York to Los Angeles arrive at Boulder Colorado? 10:15 or 10:15 Television listings in UK require 'backtracking' (and day runs from 6am to 6am) USA uses 12-hour clock even for times of flights! USA military uses 24-hour ('military') time. What day does midnight belong to? 'Hostilities will end officially at one minute after midnight to-night' Tuesday, May 8 1945 Winston Churchill

19 19 School of Technology ISO Time ISO time format: 24-hour clock hh:ss or hh:ss:cc examples: 09:30 23:59:59 Advantages Easy to do calculations No confusion over am or pm Sorts correctly as string

20 20 School of Technology GetDate, GetTime: problem What is wrong with: … GetDate(year, month, day); GetTime(hour, minute); …?

21 21 School of Technology GetDate, GetTime: answer What is wrong with: … GetDate(year, month, day); GetTime(hour, minute); …? Answer: if used close to midnight can get out by one day! GetDate called before midnight GetTime called after midnight Wrong day!

22 22 School of Technology ISO Date and Time yyyy–mm–dd hh:ss or yyyy–mm–ddThh:ss Possibly with time zone appended: 2006–11–23T09:59UTC+00

23 23 School of Technology Numbers Decimal (radix) separator Dot 123.45 or Comma 123,45 Grouping separator 1,000,000.99 (UK) 1'000'000,99 (Switzerland) 1.000.000,99 1 000 000,99 ( ISO standard – no grouping character

24 24 School of Technology Numbers: Dot countries Countries where a dot is used to mark the radix point include: Australia, Brunei, Botswana, Canada (English-speaking), China, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Hong Kong of the People's Republic of China, India, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Korea (both North and South), Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Peru, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States (including insular areas)

25 25 School of Technology Numbers: Comma countries Countries where a comma is used to mark the radix point include: Albania, Andorra, Argentina, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Canada (French-speaking), Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Chile, Colombia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Estonia, Faeroes, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Greenland, Hungary, Indonesia, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg (uses both separators officially), Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zimbabwe

26 26 School of Technology Currencies Some countries use units of currency that lead to very big numbers: Pre-euro: 'Looks a million lire' (Lira was Italian unit of currency, symbol £) £1 = 1800 Lire, so about £500 Consider conversion rate Check for currency symbols in typeface: £ $ ¥ …

27 27 School of Technology Measurements SI, Système International d'Unités (metric system) Used in all countries of world, apart from: United States United Kingdom (partial use: a right old mess) the Bill for a compulsory change to the metric system (in United Kingdom) was approved on1st July 1863 About 95% of people on the planet live in metric countries

28 28 School of Technology Problems with measurements In 1999 NASA lost a $125 million Mars Orbiter because one engineering team used metric units while another used English units for a key spacecraft operation. A computer program that was supposed to provide its output in newton seconds (N·s) but instead provided pound-force seconds (lbf·s). Aircraft altitudes are in feet throughout the world, except for China, Mongolia, and the CIS (former Soviet states), which use metres.

29 29 School of Technology 'System'

30 30 School of Technology Phone numbers Americans use # sign Area code Local number There is an international format for phone numbers: Access code – 00 (or +) Country code – 44 (United Kingdom) Area code – 1865 (Oxford) Local number 484539 So +44 1865 484539 In France digits written in pairs and pronounced as two-digit number: 48 45 39 ('quarante-huit, quarante-cinq, trente-neuf')

31 31 School of Technology Honorifics and personal titles Dr Prof Herr Dr Frau Dr Herr Professor DDr (Doppel Doktor)

32 32 School of Technology Postal addresses British addresses are very long: Room T223 Department of Computing School of Technology Oxford Brookes University Wheatley Campus Wheatley Oxford Oxfordshire United Kingdom OX33 1HX Can't put my post-code into an ÖAMTC (Austrian) computer.

33 33 School of Technology Page layouts Writing direction – affects reading direction of web site Left-to-right … Paper sizes Apart from US only Canada uses US letter paper sizes ISO 216 Paper Sizes: A4 physics professor Georg Christoph Lichtenberg (University of Göttingen, Germany, 1742-1799)

34 34 School of Technology Collation order (not on checklist) Different languages put same characters in different orders. For example In German, ö comes just after o In Swedish, ö comes after z In Swedish, v and w are sorted as the same character. From SAS web site: Swedish version

35 35 School of Technology This program is not world-ready yet! public class NotI18N { static public void main(String[] args) { System.out.println("Hello."); System.out.println("How are you?"); System.out.println("Goodbye."); } You can't ask a translator to work with program text. We need to internationalise it – to make it world-ready. From

36 36 School of Technology References.NET Internationalization The Developer's Guide to Building Global Windows and Web Applications Guy Smith-Ferrier Addison Wesley

37 37 School of Technology Summary Can't require customers to use English (US/UK?) Can't leave customers to localise software Need to think about lots of issues Need to internationalise software: to make it world ready. Modern systems (such as Java, Microsoft.NET) give help on this.

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