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A Caste of Helot Labourers Special Settlers and the Cultivation of Cotton in Soviet Central Asia: 1944-1956.

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Presentation on theme: "A Caste of Helot Labourers Special Settlers and the Cultivation of Cotton in Soviet Central Asia: 1944-1956."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Caste of Helot Labourers Special Settlers and the Cultivation of Cotton in Soviet Central Asia:

2 Introduction Forced labour in cotton cultivation in history The US South Soviet Central Asia in the 1930s (GULag) National deportations to Central Asia during 1940s Legal and material conditions of deportees

3 Origins of the Special Settlement Regime Exile of Kulaks, Confined residency of special settlers Mandatory registration with OGPU Use of special settler labor in the 1930s

4 Development of the Special Settlement Regime Special commandant regulations, 7 February 1944 Passport restrictions, 26 November 1944 Labour regulations, 8 March 1944 Surveillance, 17 March 1944 ID cards and registration, 16 August January 1945 regulations Decrees of 24 and 26 November 1948

5 Karachais Deported 2 November 1943 Total deported 68,938 25,216 settled in South Kazakhstan Oblast Many settled in Pakhta-Aral region Forced to cultivate cotton Extremely poor material conditions High death rate

6 Crimean Tatars Deported May 1944 Total deported 188, ,424 settled in Uzbekistan Lack of private plots forced Crimean Tatar deportees to leave kolkhozes for industrial work 4,095 worked on Narpay Sovkhoz Poor conditions led to transfer of 2,639 to Tajikistan to cultivate cotton

7 Meskhetian Turks Deported 15 to 28 November 1944 Total deported 94,955 53,163 settled in Uzbekistan Over 90% agricultural More than 30% of workforce, 13,360, cultivated cotton in Noted for strong agrarian work ethic

8 Russian-Germans Total of 203,796 repatriated to USSR, By end of 1948, 18,184 repatriated Russian-Germans in Tajikistan Most worked on cotton kolkhozes

9 Conclusion: End of the Special Settlement Regime 5 July 1954 release of minors release of special categories 13 December 1955 release of remaining Russian-Germans 28 April 1956 release of Crimean Tatars and Meskhetian Turks 16 July 1956 release of Karachais


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