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1 A Performance Approach to Second/Third Language Teaching and Learning Ochanomizu University Multilingualism, Regional & Minority.

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Presentation on theme: "1 A Performance Approach to Second/Third Language Teaching and Learning Ochanomizu University Multilingualism, Regional & Minority."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 A Performance Approach to Second/Third Language Teaching and Learning Ochanomizu University Multilingualism, Regional & Minority Languages: Paradigms for Languages of the Wider World SOAS, University of London April 2009 Meili Fang

2 2 This talk introduction – types of language teaching and learning comparing teaching of second/third foreign/heritage languages key points of Performance Approach (PA): a methodology adapted from foreign language teaching for second/third foreign and heritage/minority language teaching PA and performance video examples and discussion

3 3 Introduction conventional teaching and learning contrasts: national/mother language foreign languages actually first language (often but not always national language) first foreign language second or third foreign language heritage/minority/immigrant language the community is voluntarily or forcefully dominated or out of their country

4 4 Large and small languages I taught or was part of teaching team for: Japanese (in Taiwan) Mandarin (Japan, UK) Hokkien (Japan, UK) Karaim (Lithuania) less commonly taught

5 5 Courses are very diverse JapaneseFL taught as a major (12 hrs) Mandarin2 nd FL (after English) (3 hrs) curiosity to high school students (1 hr) Hokkienas 3 rd FL (after E, M), students with personal motives (3 hrs) KaraimHeritage language as 3 rd or 4 th language in intensive summer school

6 6... but methodologies arent more useful to identify similarities and differences between learners in classes in institutional and community settings – the trends are opposite teaching settings – structure and resources PA methods were effective for smaller languages... even more effective!

7 7 age ability learning goals motivation mother/heritage language background institutional settings endangered languages community settings similarity Learners in language settings

8 8 Teaching settings less institutional commitment options rather than compulsory learner motivations tend to be personal and less instrumental learner backgrounds may be very different less design and input to teaching resources less teaching hours very easy for big mismatch between goals, materials and learners could mainstream FL methodologies be appropriate? yes, but only if effective

9 9 Performance approach (PA) main issues are course design and classroom dynamics... and how these serve the learning goals (and wider goals)

10 10 PA key points clear teaching goal and process rapid, measurable learning students continually perform what they learned (spiral of learning) effective materials, activities, assessment include language functions e.g. emotion, culture drama creation and performance involve language speakers generate further language learning resources

11 11 Spiral of learning Typical teaching -bank savings Performance Approach -spiral

12 12 Planning: constraints and goals constraints time available – calendar, hours materials teachers infrastructure goals researched, realistic and concrete e.g. to master 450 vocabulary items; reach pre-intermediate level; speech functions; cultural (e.g. songs)

13 13 PA design course design hours, classes, teachers driven by learners motivations, learning styles, learning goals teaching materials design textbook other materials (worksheets, songs, games etc)

14 14 PA design activity design listening, Q & A, conversation, find out... drama (see later) feedback and evaluation design evaluation / assessment - continuous and varied drama (self/group/teacher feedback) create concrete resources that feed back to future learners

15 15 Textbook learnable sequence each lesson builds on next controlled vocabulary and structures topics and dialogues relevant and useful predictable learning give mileposts and confidence to learners

16 16 Elementary Spoken Hokkien Introduction 1 Vowels 2 Consonants 3 Tones 4 Tone change 5 Whats your name? Lí kúi sè? 6 Greetings: Chiãh-pá böe 7 What is it? Che s sím-m…h? Chapter topics

17 17 Elementary Spoken Hokkien 8 What would you like to drink? Lí ài lim sím- m…h? 9 What day is today? Kin-á-jit chhe-kúi ? 10 When is your birthday? Lí ê si-j…t tang- sî ? 11 What number are you calling? Lí phah kúi hö ? 12 How much is this? Che ài göa-che chî ? 13 Do you know where the toilet is? Lí kám chai-iá tó-üi ü piän-só ? Chapter topics

18 18 Elementary Spoken Hokkien 14 What are you doing? Lí teh chhóng- sià ? 15 Inviting a friend: Iok-pêng-iú 16 How long have you been learning Taiwanese? Lí Tâi-gí õh göa kú a ? 17 Can I try it on? Che ë-sái chhì-chheng bë ? 18 Making a booking: Tëng pâng-keng 19 Whats wrong with you? Lí s án-chóa 20 Introducing friends: Kài-siäu pêng-iú Chapter topics

19 19 Lesson 10: Lí ê si-j…t tang-sî? 1. Tùi-ōe / Dialogue A:Lí ê si-j…t tang-sî? B:Góa ê si-j…t sì ji-gõeh chhe-peh. Lí ê leh? A:Góa ê si-j…t si chia-gõeh chãp-it. B:S téng-kó-gõeh ¬h. A:Hè. B:Lí kám chai-iá lín läu-su n cha-b¯-kiá ê se-j…t sì tang-sî? A:Góan läu-su n cha-b¯ -kiá?! Lí m¤g che beh chhóng-sià? Example chapter dialogue

20 20 PA and theatricality classroom is a theatre setting that makes interactions more authentic performances are respected as language events, and as records of the language development or revitalization process

21 21 Drama group based groups create own characters and story connects with culture or daily life, emotions performances matter: what learners do is valued performances are new resources

22 22 Drama steps establish parameters set up story topics formulate and present story script writing, presentation, correction record voices prepare for performance performance; video distribute useful resource

23 Hokkien :.. : Jonny Moses & Rui Niu : : Ming : Sister Yang : Lee : Old Wong : Record Producer A: Be king-chio, be king-chio! Tai-oan e king-chio siok koh ho chiah! Kin lai be a!, ! ! ! Get your bananas, get your bananas! Taiwan bananas are cheap and delicious! Come and get them before theyre gone! B: Thau-ke gau-cha, king-chio chit-kin goa-che chi n ?, ? Good morning, how much for half a kilo? A: Iu n Siu n -lu gau-cha! Sa-chap kho, ho chiah koh siok o!, !, ! Good morning Sister Yang! 30NT, theyre cheap and delicious! Students drama script

24 Hokkien contd B: Chit-kin sa-chap kho oh4?! chiah1-ni kui a! Na goa be khah-che e3, li e-sai sng khah-siok e be? ?! !, ? 30NT for half a kilo?! So expensive! Can you do them any cheaper if I buy a bit more? A: E-sai, e-sai.. Ok, sure. B: M-ko, goa ai seng chhi chiah khoa n li e king-chio u-ia n u ho-chiah bo…., … But first Ive got to see whether your bananas are sweet or not… A: Bo bun-teh, ia bo, li chiah khoa n mai..,,.. No problem. Here, have a little taste. Students drama script

25 25 An endangered language situation Karaim - Turkic language spoken in Trakai, Lithuania summer courses goals: to support learners to effectively take part in basic everyday conversation. Designed for a class of different ages incl children, teenagers, and young and old adults. Focus how to teach a language in a short time. course: 2-week intensive, 2 classes/day, each class 70 min, total of 20 hours; also informal afternoon activities

26 26 Conclusions PA is effective for rapid, predictable, measurable, accountable, usable language learning clear, integrated course design and materials continuous language production, feedback group-based drama resource creation we have to bring the best methodology to teaching and learning LCTL, minority, and endangered languages!

27 27 End Thank you References To appear. Meili Fang & David Nathan. Language Documentation and Pedagogy for Endangered Languages: a Mutual Revitalisation.. In P. Austin (ed) Language Documentation and Description. London: SOAS Taiwanese language teaching and development in the United Kingdom. Invited paper at conference Taiwan Studies: British Perspectives, Academia Sinica, Taipei, December []

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