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Dr.Mariana Bara / Kira Mantsu, London, April 2009 â â Transmission of Armân /Macedonarmân language and culture in the multilingual educational context.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr.Mariana Bara / Kira Mantsu, London, April 2009 â â Transmission of Armân /Macedonarmân language and culture in the multilingual educational context."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr.Mariana Bara / Kira Mantsu, London, April 2009 â â Transmission of Armân /Macedonarmân language and culture in the multilingual educational context within the Balkan States Dr Mariana Bara Kira Mantsu

2 Mariana Bara, London, April 2009 Armân Language - Definition of a Mother Tongue - MARIANA BARA, PhD Hyperion University, Bucharest

3 Mariana Bara, London, April 2009 Our language is understood by some people, the dead people, by God, the Virgin and by the angels perhaps. In 168 before Christ Paulus Emilius took over Perseus, Latin words took over the Hellenic-Macedonian words. In our language Hellas, the Macedonian passion and the glory of Rome finished in ashes, nostalgia remained… [...] Our poets sent messengers for engagement to other languages, our language avoided by the messengers Penelope without Odysseus. Our language, tomb where I go down, icon in which I ressuscite. by Yioryi Vrana

4 Mariana Bara, London, April 2009 The Romanisation in the South-East of Europe Roman province Macedonia (from 168 BC), official language LATIN Roman province Macedonia (from 168 BC), official language LATIN official language GREEK from the 6 th century official language GREEK from the 6 th century Area of maximum Romansation: VIA EGNATIA Roman province Dacia – 106 AC, conquered with the contribution of the legions from Macedonia

5 Mariana Bara, London, April 2009

6 Substrate Languages AR: Macedonian, Thracian, Illyrian, Ancient Greek (T.Papahagi, Th.Capidan, C.Poghirc etc.) AR: Macedonian, Thracian, Illyrian, Ancient Greek (T.Papahagi, Th.Capidan, C.Poghirc etc.) ILR, II: a Thracian linguistic area (from northern Greece to the western slopes of Balkan mountains); a Thracian linguistic area (from northern Greece to the western slopes of Balkan mountains); an Illyrian area (North-East of the Adriatic Sea); an Illyrian area (North-East of the Adriatic Sea); a Daco-Moesian area (Dacia, the two Moesiae and, possibly, Dardania). a Daco-Moesian area (Dacia, the two Moesiae and, possibly, Dardania). RO: Daco-Moesian (Al.Rosetti, Cicerone Poghirc, H. Mihăescu, La romanité dans le sud-est de lEurope ) In Antiquity there was no linguistic unity in the North of the Balkans, nor a too great similarity between the languages of this area (C.Poghirc, in ILR, I, p.313)

7 Mariana Bara, London, April 2009 Language Birth Areas AR: Macedonia, Epir, Thessaly AR: Macedonia, Epir, Thessaly (Th.Capidan, T.Papahagi, Matilda Caragiu Marioţeanu, C.Poghirc, Neagu Djuvara) RO: Dacia, Moesia Inferior, Moesia Superior RO: Dacia, Moesia Inferior, Moesia Superior (Ov.Densusianu, Sextil Puşcariu, Al.Rosetti)

8 Mariana Bara, London, April 2009 Latin-based Languages in South-Eastern Europe Latin Armân Local variants: fărshirot, yrămustean, moscopolean, pindean: Dacoromanian or Romanian Local variants: bănăţean, crişean, maramureşean, moldovenesc, muntenesc Megleno-romanian Istro-romanian

9 Mariana Bara, London, April 2009 Contact languages - in chronological order - AR: AR: Ancient Geek (ancient bilingualism, Tache Papahagi, DDA) Ancient Geek (ancient bilingualism, Tache Papahagi, DDA) Old Slavic Old Slavic Modern Greek Modern Greek Albanian Albanian Turkish (almost through Greek ) Turkish (almost through Greek ) Bulgarian (since 19 th century) Bulgarian (since 19 th century) Italian (almost through Greek) Italian (almost through Greek) RO: Old Slavic (Slavic-Romanian blingualism, Al.Rosetti, ILR) Hungarian (since 10 th century) Bulgarian, Ukrainian, Polish Turkish Modern Greek (since 18 th century) French (since 19 th century) etc.

10 Mariana Bara, London, April 2009 Romance Comparison - for the Basic Vocabulary VR - VRS = 2611 words VRS = 2611 words VRF = 2610 VRF = 2610 VRI = 2599 VRI = 2599 VRR = 2581 VRR = 2581 VRC = 2381 VRC = 2381 VRP = 2312 VRP = 2312 VRA = 2294 VRA = 2294 VRO = 2271 VRO = 2271 VRSd = 1682 VRSd = 1682 VRRet = 1012 (only Latin) VRRet = 1012 (only Latin)

11 Mariana Bara, London, April 2009 Etymological composition of VR LevelEtymologyVRAVRR I LATIN 38%30,29% II Internal derivates 14,50%24,68% IIISuperstrate GR: 18% SL: 9,02% IVSuperstrate TC: 9,50% FR: 7,47%......... Multiple Etymology 4%17,70%

12 Mariana Bara, London, April 2009 Armân Language TODAY Mother tongue of approx. 1,5 mill. people Mother tongue of approx. 1,5 mill. people Still spoken Still spoken Regional language Regional language Common basic vocabulary shared Common basic vocabulary shared Literature (authors, publishing houses, festivals) Literature (authors, publishing houses, festivals) Variety of languages: journalism, religious texts, ONG documents, advertising, internet etc.) Variety of languages: journalism, religious texts, ONG documents, advertising, internet etc.) Adapting new terminologies Adapting new terminologies

13 Mariana Bara, London, April 2009 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!

14 Kira Mantsu, London, April 2009 Transmission of Armân/Macedonarmân language and culture in the multilingual educational context within the Balkan States KIRA MANTSU Writer

15 Kira Mantsu, London, April 2009 Armân / Macedonarmân people roots originate from Ancient Macedonia roots originate from Ancient Macedonia live nowadays : Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, FYROM (R. of Macedonia), Romania, Serbia live nowadays : Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, FYROM (R. of Macedonia), Romania, Serbia 1913, Macedonia was divided up among Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria - disastrous effect on traditional Armân/Macedonarmân life style 1913, Macedonia was divided up among Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria - disastrous effect on traditional Armân/Macedonarmân life style Armân/Macedonarmân people is a special European problem in the field of minority issues in the Balkan Armân/Macedonarmân people is a special European problem in the field of minority issues in the Balkan The only in Balkan The only autochthon in Balkan which never established their own national state The only people in Balkan without a kin-state The only people in Balkan without a kin-state

16 Kira Mantsu, London, April 2009 Etnonyms Armân / Macedonarmân – own name Armân / Macedonarmân – own name Known also as : Vlahi, Vlasi, Koutso-Vlahi, Elino-Vlahi, Macedo-Vlahi, Macedoneni (Macedoromãni, Mazedo-Romanen), Makedoni, Aromãni (Aromanians, Aromunen, Aroumains), Tsintsari, Cioban, Rrmeri, etc. Known also as : Vlahi, Vlasi, Koutso-Vlahi, Elino-Vlahi, Macedo-Vlahi, Macedoneni (Macedoromãni, Mazedo-Romanen), Makedoni, Aromãni (Aromanians, Aromunen, Aroumains), Tsintsari, Cioban, Rrmeri, etc.

17 Kira Mantsu, London, April 2009 Armân / Macedonarmân : Bilingualism / Multilingualism bilingualism Macedonian/Tracian/Greek-Latin – Provincia Macedonia (168 BC – 600 AC) bilingualism Macedonian/Tracian/Greek-Latin – Provincia Macedonia (168 BC – 600 AC) bilingualism Greek-Latin (Byzantium) bilingualism Greek-Latin (Byzantium) biligualism Armân-Neogreek / Armân-Albanian biligualism Armân-Neogreek / Armân-Albanian biligualism Armân-Slavic (beginning with 6th C.) biligualism Armân-Slavic (beginning with 6th C.) modern multilingualism : 1. Armân – 2. official language (Albanian, Bulgarian, Greek, Romanian, Serbian, Slavic-macedonian) – 3. modern language (English, French, German, etc.) modern multilingualism : 1. Armân – 2. official language (Albanian, Bulgarian, Greek, Romanian, Serbian, Slavic-macedonian) – 3. modern language (English, French, German, etc.)

18 Kira Mantsu, London, April 2009 Documents on historical & educational bilingualism Cultural movement of Moschopolis (18th C.) : Th.A.Kavallioti - Protopiria, Vienna, 1770 – Dictionary of three Balkan languages (Greek-Vlach- Albanian) Cultural movement of Moschopolis (18th C.) : Th.A.Kavallioti - Protopiria, Vienna, 1770 – Dictionary of three Balkan languages (Greek-Vlach- Albanian) Daniil Moscopoleanu - Lexicon Tetraylosson, 1794, Venice – Dictionary of four Balkan languages (Greek/Romaiika-Vlach-Albanian-Bulgarian) Daniil Moscopoleanu - Lexicon Tetraylosson, 1794, Venice – Dictionary of four Balkan languages (Greek/Romaiika-Vlach-Albanian-Bulgarian) Mihail G.Boiagi - Yramatiki Makedonovlahiki, Vienna 1813, the first academic grammar of Armân language (Armân-Greek-German) Mihail G.Boiagi - Yramatiki Makedonovlahiki, Vienna 1813, the first academic grammar of Armân language (Armân-Greek-German) Rich classical & modern literature – 1850 until nowadays Rich classical & modern literature – 1850 until nowadays

19 Kira Mantsu, London, April 2009 Advantages & Disadvantages of Multilingualism Advantages : Advantages : 1. Communication & cultural exchanges between different ethnies 2. Social cohesion and guarantee for political stability 3. Access to education, social, polical & economical life Disadvantages : 1. Cultural assimilation by the dominant culture of majority 2. Unequal competition between minority & official language 3. Lack of practical motivation for the minority language How can we stress the advantages and how can we transfer disadvantages into advantages ?

20 Kira Mantsu, London, April 2009 Situation of Armân language in Balkan states 1905- Irade: Recognition of Armân people & language by the Othoman Empire 1905- Irade: Recognition of Armân people & language by the Othoman Empire 1997- Recommendation 1333 on Armân Language and Culture, adopted by Council of Europe 1997- Recommendation 1333 on Armân Language and Culture, adopted by Council of Europe No access to education in their mother tongue, due to the unrecognition as minority nowhere in Balkan states (excepted R.of Macedonia/FYROM) No access to education in their mother tongue, due to the unrecognition as minority nowhere in Balkan states (excepted R.of Macedonia/FYROM) Armân/Macedonarmân language, still has not achieved the status of regional or minority language. Armân/Macedonarmân language, still has not achieved the status of regional or minority language. At 12 years from the issue of the Recommendation 1333/1997, we find with deep sadness that this document had no effect for the Armâns/Macedonarmâns, and the year of 2009 is still finding the Armâns/Macedonarmâns under the threat of their disappearance as a distinct ethnic group. At 12 years from the issue of the Recommendation 1333/1997, we find with deep sadness that this document had no effect for the Armâns/Macedonarmâns, and the year of 2009 is still finding the Armâns/Macedonarmâns under the threat of their disappearance as a distinct ethnic group.

21 Kira Mantsu, London, April 2009 â â Transmission of Armân /Macedonarmân language and culture Through : Family: mother tongue (Armân/Macedonarmân) and the official one – due to the mixed families Family: mother tongue (Armân/Macedonarmân) and the official one – due to the mixed families School : Courses, Books School : Courses, Books Interbalcanic sommer courses for children, teachers – for the unifying of the Armân/Macedonarmân language and teaching books Interbalcanic sommer courses for children, teachers – for the unifying of the Armân/Macedonarmân language and teaching books Interbalcanic seminars to promote Armân/Macedonarmân language and culture among Balkan people – help to the ehnical and social cohesion Interbalcanic seminars to promote Armân/Macedonarmân language and culture among Balkan people – help to the ehnical and social cohesion Mass-media – TV(digital TV channel for Armân /Macedonarmân, with redaction in each Balkan country Mass-media – TV(digital TV channel for Armân /Macedonarmân, with redaction in each Balkan country

22 Kira Mantsu, London, April 2009 Proposals Compulsory institutionalization of Armân/Macedonarmân language in the Balkan states Compulsory institutionalization of Armân/Macedonarmân language in the Balkan states Elaboration of legal standards for the real protection of unrecognized minoritiy languages, as Armân/Macedonarmân Elaboration of legal standards for the real protection of unrecognized minoritiy languages, as Armân/Macedonarmân Transform of the passive minority protection into an active one, by adopting a legal system mentioned in the European Constitution Transform of the passive minority protection into an active one, by adopting a legal system mentioned in the European Constitution A clear EU minority policy is necessary, more than even. A clear EU minority policy is necessary, more than even.

23 Kira Mantsu, London, April 2009 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!


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