Presentation on theme: "Surface energy of two-dimensional finite or periodic foams"— Presentation transcript:
1Surface energy of two-dimensional finite or periodic foams ICMS, Edinburgh, March 2012Surface energy of two-dimensionalfinite or periodic foams1. Finite foams – M. Fátima Vaz2. Periodic foams – Paulo Teixeira
2ICMS, Edinburgh, March 2012Problem: N cells of equal or different areasIdentify the arrangement, of the N cells with lowest energy2D bubbles minimize the total perimeter as E = P(Honeycomb = minimum perimeter partion of the plane into regions of equal area – Hales 2001)- Experiments- Analytical results- Surface EvolverFinite clusters of several types:A central bubble surrounded by several shells of bubbles with the same or different areas;Assemblies of finite collections of identical bubbles or bubbles of two- different areas;Chain clusters which consist of periodic rows of bubbles;Bubble clusters with defects inside
3ICMS, Edinburgh, 19-23 March 2012 Experimental procedure Liquid – glass (Smith (1952), Vaz and Fortes (1997), F. Graner,B. Dollet)Vessel with detergent solution; blow air bubbles under a plate(a) Bubbles are trapped between a glass plate and a liquid solution, a cluster is obtained(b) By tilting the plate, the liquid fraction increases, the cluster looses rigidity and the bubbles are separated(c) By levelling the vessel the bubbles assemble into different clusters
4ICMS, Edinburgh, March 2012a) A central bubble surrounded by several shells of bubbles with the same or different areasb) Assemblies of finite collections of identical bubbles or bubbles of two different areasc) Chain clusters which consist of a periodic single row of bubblesd) Bubble clusters with defects inside5-7
5ICMS, Edinburgh, March 2012a) A central bubble surrounded by several shells of bubbles with the same or different areasVaz, Fortes, Graner, Phil. Mag. Letters, 2002To propose an approximate equation for the surface energy of 2D free bubble clustersBased on Graner et al 2001Ai = area of bubble i3.722 = perimeter of a regular hexagon of area 1Equation is exact for the honeycomb - but deviations occur as width of cell area distribution increasesFinite clusters –contribution of the external boundary to the energy
6ICMS, Edinburgh, 19-23 March 2012 Round cluster: Large finite cluster – regular hexagonal boundary:
7ICMS, Edinburgh, March 2012We compare with exact calculations of the surface energy of symmetrical clustersAnalytically - the clusters are solved by imposing the Plateau laws (circular films meeting at 120° at triple junctions with zero sum of the curvatures) and the areas of the bubbles.n = number of sides of the central cellcell areas are 1 and - deviations: lower n and lower good accuracy for narrow area distribution
8ICMS, Edinburgh, 19-23 March 2012 Pressure inside planar clusters Fortes, Morgan, Vaz, Phil. Mag. Letters, 2007Hexagonal clusterN= 331 bubblesp*= average pressure of a clusterp0= 21/231/4 ≈ = pressure in a half- plane cluster of unit areas = mondisperse cluster
9ICMS, Edinburgh, March 2012As the number, N, of unit bubbles become large, the average normalized pressure p* in an energy-minimizing cluster approachesp0= 2 1/2 3 1/4 ≈- An equation was derived for the rigorous theoretical upper and lower bounds on the average pressure in terms of N.- Surface Evolver simulations agree with the estimates.
10ICMS, Edinburgh, March 2012Effect of the number of shells on the pressure and energy of two-dimensional free bubble clustersVaz, Teixeira, Graner, Cox, Colloids and Surfaces A, 2009Simulations of two-dimensional hexagonal bubble clusters consisting of:a central bubble of area surrounded by s shells or layers of bubbles of unit area.Monodisperse clusters: a central bubble with area = 10 surrounded by s shells of unit-area bubbles: (a) s = 1, (b) s = 2, (c) s = 3, (d) s = 4, (e) s = 7, (f) s = 10, (g) s = 15 and (h) s = 20.
11ICMS, Edinburgh, March 2012Pressure in the central cell, p0, vs the number of shells s, for several For < 10, p0 decreases with increasing s, as in the monodisperse clusterFor >10, however, p0 becomes an increasing function of s.The same is true of the average pressure over the entire s-shell clusterThe average pressure in a 20-shell cluster is almost independent of , even for large central bubble areas. It seems safe to conclude that in a large cluster the average pressure does not depend on and tends to the same limiting value, , as in the monodisperse cluster
12ICMS, Edinburgh, March 2012Provides a good account of our results, even for clusters with a large number of shells and large .
13ICMS, Edinburgh, March 2012b) Assemblies of finite collections of identical bubbles or bubbles of two different areasMinimum energy configurations of small bidisperse clustersVaz, Cox, Alonso, J. Phys. Condens. Matter, 2004- Small collections of N bubbles with two different areas = bidisperse clusters- For experimental simplicity, we restricted to clusters ofN/2 bubbles of area A1 and N/2 bubbles of area A2.- Experimentally different arrangements were found for each N.the observed topologies for bidisperse clustersN = 6 and A1/A2 = 4/3.Most frequent nº2
14ICMS, Edinburgh, March 2012The candidates that appear most frequently in the experiments are expected to be the minimal ones.We these topologies we computed the energy of each of these clusters using the Surface Evolver.- Candidates for the minimal energy arrangement.Lowest energy clusters – Surface Evolver- N=4, 6, 8, 10
15ICMS, Edinburgh, March 2012SE calculated energies are compared with existing approximations.- Round cluster:- Regular hexagonal boundary = lower bound for energy- SE calculations showed good agreement with the analytic predictions- Some values below the lower bound can be attributted to the small number of bubbles in the cluster
16ICMS, Edinburgh, March 2012c) Chain clusters which consist of periodic rows of bubblesFortes, Vaz, Cox, Teixeira, Colloids and Surfaces A, 2007Stability - chain symmetrical clusters show an energy minimum under compression (decreasing the width of the chain clusters)Chain clusters with N rows, each containing n bubbles of unit area and width w, periodic in one directionwN=4 n=30
17ICMS, Edinburgh, March 2012Examples of the buckling instability in chain clusters with N=1, N=2 ,N=4- Surface Evolver was used to examine chain clusters which are confined in a periodic box- The width w of the bubbles is decreased until buckling occurs at a critical wb- Instability occurs when one of the eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix vanishes- The width of a bubble at the point of buckling wb increases with n for N> 1
18Simulation of defects in bubble clusters ICMS, Edinburgh, March 2012d) Bubble clusters with defects insideSimulation of defects in bubble clustersCox, Teixeira, Vaz, J. Phys. Condens. Matter, 2010Ex: plastic deformation deals with the interactions between defectsTo study a small number of defects in 2D large clusters and assess how the presence of defects affect the energy and pressure of clustersOur simulations of pairs of defects reveal how the presence of one defect is “felt” by the other defect as a function of their separation- Isolated defects:- Dislocations (pair of 5- and 7- sided bubbles)- Disclinations (non- hexagonal bubble)Pairs of defects and interactions
19ICMS, Edinburgh, March 2012Surface Evolver simulations - The surface energy E is minimized.Isolated disclinationsn= 5, 7, 8 and 9- Isolated dislocation 5/7- Pair of 5/7 dislocationsopposite Burgers vector
20ICMS, Edinburgh, 19-23 March 2012 Surface Evolver simulations Pairs of disclinations of the same strength P (n1 = n2 = 5 or 7) or opposite (n1 = 5 and n2 = 7)P = n-6
21ICMS, Edinburgh, 19-23 March 2012 Results Pressure in the central cell Bubble pressureEnergy per unit area (i.e. per bubble),for all clusters
22Single disclination ICMS, Edinburgh, 19-23 March 2012 Nematic liquid Equation derived w ( n = 5 disclination) (P = -1)=w (n = 7 disclination) (P = +1)(but the magnitude of w is half of predicted)
23Paired disclination ICMS, Edinburgh, 19-23 March 2012 (for disclinations of opposite sign)n1 = n2 = 5 and n1 = n2 = 7 have similar strain energies, which decrease, with the separationn1 = 5, n2 =7, increases with d, with a logarithmic fit with M = 2.5 × 10−3Data converge to the values of a single disclination
24Single dislocation ICMS, Edinburgh, 19-23 March 2012 Burgers vector (hexagonal foam B=1.074)energy decreases with 1/r with =1.88
25Paired dislocations ICMS, Edinburgh, 19-23 March 2012 Energy increases almost logarithmically with dComparasion of data with the same defects embedded in an infinite hexagonal foamBoundaries do not have a large effect on the interaction between defectsEnergy in the hexagonal foam fits ln(kd + 1)
26ICMS, Edinburgh, March 2012Disclination- affects the energy and the pressure.The energy of a disclination decreases as the number of shells increases.The energy and the pressure of a cluster with n = 6 ~ those of cluster with 5/7 dislocationAnalytical approaches for continuous media: defects in foams follow the predicted trends. For example, the energy of two disclinations with opposite strengths a distance d apart is proportional to lnd.A perfect match between analytical results and simulations is not to be expected. Clusters with n = 5 and 7 are examples of this because these disclinations have the same strength (in absolute value), one would expect that they would have the same energy. However, the two clusters have different boundaries
28ICMS, Edinburgh, March 2012Periodic tilings of the plane: what are they?Minimum perimeter partitions of the plane into equal numbers of regions of two different areasFortes, Teixeira, Eur. Phys. J. E, 2001The minimum-perimeter partition of the plane into regions of equal area is the tiling by regular hexagons - the honeycomb (Hales, 2001)How do we pave the plane with tiles of two types (sizes) so as to have the shortest boundary?Consider only 1:1 periodic tilings with at most two cells of each area per repeating unit, and where all cells of the same area are equivalentDraw all candidate structures and calculate their energies vs area ratio
29ICMS, Edinburgh, March 2012Periodic tilings of the plane: what are they?There are a few others, e.g., 3292, 6262, that are never lowest energy
30ICMS, Edinburgh, March 2012Periodic tilings of the plane: what are they?ResultsRange of λMinimal tiling319142824181527261613191 wins if one cell is much smaller than the other6161 wins if they are about the same size
31Mixing and sorting of bidisperse 2D bubbles ICMS, Edinburgh, March 2012Periodic tilings of the plane: but are they actually realised?Mixing and sorting of bidisperse 2D bubblesTeixeira, Graner, Fortes, Eur. Phys. J. E, 2002We now allow cells to de-mix and consider finite cell clusters. Compare energies of mixed and sorted arrangementsEstimate outer interface energy (all arrangements) and inner interface energy (sorted arrangements)Inner interface is wall of dislocations (5/7 pairs)
32ICMS, Edinburgh, March 2012Periodic tilings of the plane: but are they actually realised?ResultsWork our which arrangement has lowest energy for each (N,λ) pair- As N increases the weight of the interface decreases and there is sorting
33ICMS, Edinburgh, March 2012Periodic tilings of the plane: but are they actually realised?ResultsFor infinite N:Range of λMinimal tiling31916+6428241815272Mixed and sorted arrangements alternateCells of similar sizes sort!
34Some outstanding questions in 2D foams ICMS, Edinburgh, March 2012Some outstanding questions in 2D foamsWe cannot prove that any of these configurations is a minimiser.We cannot be sure that we did not miss some possible configurations. Do you know a systematic way of generating them?Can we do a better job estimating boundary energies?We would like to generalise to(i) more than two cells of each size per repeating unit;(ii) different numbers of cells of each sizeThe number of possible configurations is large. How do we generate/analyse them?What about non-periodiic configurations?How do we generalise to wet foams?What is appropriate reference state for measuring energies of defected clusters?
35International Centre for Mathematical Sciences Edinburgh ICMS, Edinburgh, March 2012Acknowledgements:International Centre for Mathematical Sciences EdinburghBritish Council trough Treaty of Windsor Programme, grant no. B-20/2010
37ICMS, Edinburgh, 19-23 March 2012 Disclinations – strain energy - In a nematic liquid, the energy, w, of a wedge disclination iswhere ρ is the distance between the dislocation line and the container wall, a is the molecular dimension and K is the average elastic constant.The energy per unit length of line, w, for two wedge disclinations of opposite strengths +P and −P a distance d apart is- In a 2D hexagonal foam, the strain energy density w, i.e. the energy per unit area per unit length, of a disclination cluster of strength P iswhere G is the shear modulus and E is the elastic modulus E=4G,where a0 is the edge length of a hexagonal bubble with area A(i.e and γ is the film tension)P = n-6
38ICMS, Edinburgh, 19-23 March 2012 Dislocations - strain energy The strain energy density w of a dislocation with Burgers vector B in an incompressible foam cluster isw decreases with the distance r from the core as r−2The interaction energy of two edge dislocations with opposite signs a distance d apart in the same glide plane can be adapted towhere A is the bubble area.
39ICMS, Edinburgh, 19-23 March 2012 Results For isolated defects, we define an excess energy density aswhere is obtained in the simulationsand is the energy of a perfect hexagonal 2D cluster► For paired disclinations, we define an excess energy density asand is the energy of a joined cluster without defectswhere N’ is a factor N’=N+k1s(k2s-d)-depends on the number of rows removed when the clusters are joined which varies with s-d (s=number of shells, d=distance )- where k1 and k2 are two fitting parameters extracted from the case n1 = n2 = 6; k1 = 1.1 and k2 = 0.5