2IntroductionThe human body is made up of many specialised cells that perform specific functions.Specialised cells arise from the differentiation of unspecialised cells during embryological development.Differentiation also occurs in later developmental stages tissue repair etc in mature adults
3Stem cells…what do you know already? Use the questions below to help you complete a KWL chart to show the following information:K what you know alreadyW what you want to learn about stem cells during this unitL complete this at the end of the unit to summarise what you have learnedSome questions to think about…What is a cell?What varieties of cell exist?What is a tissue? Give some examples.What is an organ? Give some examples.What is a system? Give some examples.What is a stem cell?What are some different types of stem cells?What is the purpose of stem cell research?What are some ways that stem cells have been successfully used in medicine?What are some of the issues in stem cell research?What are some of the misconceptions that people have about stem cell research?
4What are stem cells?Stem cells are unspecialised cells that have the ability to reproduce and differentiate into a diverse range of specialised cells.Why relatively? It is either unspecialised or not
6Embryonic stem cellsEmbryonic stem cells are derived from an embryo about 4–5 days old (bastocyst).These cells have the ability to differentiate into all of the cell types that make up an organism.
7Adult (tissue) stem cells Adult or tissue stem cells are found in small numbers in the tissues and organs of adults and children, including the brain, bone marrow, skeletal muscle and skin.These cells give rise to a much more limited range of cell types and will tend to develop into cell types that are closely related to the tissue in which they are found.These cells replenish differentiated cells that need replaced in the tissues in which they are found.
8Other types of stem cells Stem cells can also be taken from the umbilical cord of new babies.Like adult stem cells, these cells can differentiate into a limited range of specialised cells.
9Induced pluripotent stem cells Induced pluripotent stem cells are adult cells that have been genetically reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell-like state.
10Somatic cellsSomatic cells are the differentiated cells that form the different types of body tissue that exist.Please see comments in Teacher notes regarding protein expression
14Germline cellsGermline cells include the gametes and the cells that produce the gametes.
15Division of germline cells Germline cells can divide by mitosis to produce more germline cells.Gamete mother cells divide by meiosis to produce gametes.
16Stem cell researchStem cell research provides us with a wealth of information and can be studied in a variety of ways, including:how cell processes such as growth, differentiation and gene regulation workthe study of diseases and their developmentdrug testingtherapeutic uses in the treatment of diseases such as leukaemia (bone marrow transplant), Hunter’s disease and heart diseasetherapeutic uses in medicine, including skin grafts for burns and stem cell grafts for cornea repair.
17Or they could become nerve cells that could heal spinal cord injuries. For example, stem cells could be turned into new bone cells and then injected into weak or broken bones.Or they could become nerve cells that could heal spinal cord injuries.Skin cells could replace burnt skin, and brain cells could help people who have suffered brain damage.A cool video showing heart cells beating in a dish….Stem cells could be taken from someone with heart disease and be turned into heart cells, which can gather in a dish and throb! They could then be injected back into the patient to rebuild their heart tissue and combat heart disease.
18Parkinson's diseaseParkinson's is a very common disease starting with mild symptoms, a mask-like face, stiffness and tremors until sufferers eventually become immobile. It is caused by a slow deterioration of certain brain cells (neurons) and there's no cure.Replacing the affected brain cells seems more hopeful than finding better drugs. Many people think that stem cells could be grown into new brain cells that could help to treat or even cure Parkinson's.
21Presentation taskUsing what you have learned already and adding further research, create a presentation that covers the following aspects of stem cells:the biology of stem cells – what is a stem cell, types of stem cellsthe potential of stem cells – details of one or two research projects involving stem cells that you have found particularly interesting, details of potential therapiesstem cell dilemmas – explore the moral and ethical issues surrounding stem cell research (personal points of view can be expressed if desired).You will be assessed using all three of the above criteria as well as on the overall quality of your presentation.
22Not in our back yard!Should a business license be issued to ESC lifeworks Inc. by the city of Glasgow?
23Cancer cellsCancer cells have many characteristics that make them different from normal cells:Cancer cells continue to reproduce to produce a mass of abnormal cells (a benign tumour).They do not respond to normal regulatory signals that would instruct them to stop dividing when necessary.They lose the molecules on their surface that would normally hold them in place and can therefore be detached from their neighbours, causing the cells to spread (malignant tumour).Skin cancer cells (melanoma)
24HPVCertain strains of the human papilloma virus (HPV) have been shown to cause cervical cancer.The routine immunisation programme in Scotland is for girls aged 12 and 13 (S2). There is also a one-off, three-year catch-up programme for older girls.
25Your taskProduce an information leaflet designed to answer the questions of a patient recently diagnosed with cancer. Points to consider:How are cancer cells different from other cells?What is a tumour?How will I know if my cancer has spread?What is the difference between a malignant tumour and a benign tumour?How will my cancer be treated?