Presentation on theme: "Developing a Nurturing School"— Presentation transcript:
1 Developing a Nurturing School Charlotte KiddGillian DuryA NURTURING school offers an accepting and affectionate atmosphere and relationships based on trust where pupils can learn within a positive secure setting.Staff who experience nurture groups as part of their school experience report gains to the ethos of the whole schoolUse flip chart to collate their responses to:NURTURE ETHOS CULTUREBe prepared with own definitions of these and thoughts about how they interlink. Refer back to these throughout the session.Prepare handouts for general strategies / approaches.
2 Aims of Session For you to : Consider local and national evidence for nurturing approachesBe introduced to nurturing theories and principles and explore why these are importantHave the opportunity to reflect on what a nurturing school looks like and consider the implications for your practiceTimings:mins25 – 30 mins– 40 mins
3 Why take a nurturing approach? Evidence of effectiveness of nurture groups:Nationally…In East DunbartonshireIn West DunbartonshireIn Glasgow schoolsIn 2007 there was a large scale study looking at 546 pupils in England split into various experimental and control groups and they found that children who attended a nurture group showed significant improvements in social & emotional functioning compared with control groups in schools without nurture groups. Cooper & Whitebread (2007).Another important study was carried out in 2002 & looked at the effects over time and found that gains in social & emotional functioning were sustained over time. (O’Conner & Colwell, 2002)And we have our own local evidence- Carol McGarry who is one of our colleagues along with our research assistant at the time evaluated the impact of the nurture group in Oxgang Primary in Kirkintilloch and found the children made significant social and emotional gains.Also West Dunbartonshire recently evaluated the impact of their nurture groups in 4 primary schools in 2008 & reported both academic and social emotional gains. Flag evaluation report.2 EPs in Glasgow carried out quite a robust study looking at 179 pupils recognised as having social, emotional and behavioural support needs attending schools in Glasgow. 32 schools were involved – half of them had nurture groups & half didn’t. They found that compared to the pupils who didn’t attend nurture groups, the nurture group pupils made significant gains in self esteem, self image, emotional maturity & attainment in literacy. (Reynolds & Kearney, 2007)
4 Evidence for whole school nurturing approaches Impact on TeachersImpact on Head TeachersImpact on PupilsSo we know that the children in the nurture groups benefit but more recently the research is starting to look at the gains for the whole school of adopting a nurturing approach.When West Lothian evaluated their nurture groups two years ago across 6 schools & 81% of staff reported a more positive ethos in the school because of the focus on nurture.Impact on TeachersTeachers more likely to adopt supportive strategies with pupils with SEBN (Cooper, Arnold & Boyd; 2001)Teachers felt more empowered to cope with SEBN in their classrooms (Sanders, 2007)Impact on Head TeachersNoted impacts on policy e.g. focus of behaviour policy had moved from punishment to identifying unmet needs (Nurture Group Network Study, 2008)Noted a more proactive approach to supporting children with SEBN (Binnie & Allen, 2008)Impact on PupilsPupils with SEBN who attended a school where there was a nurture group but who did not attend the nurture group made gains in social & emotional functioning whereas pupils with SEBN in schools where there was no nurture group declined in these domains. (Cooper & Whitbread, 2007)
5 Principles of a nurturing environment Children’s learning is understood developmentallyThe classroom offers a safe baseThe importance of nurture for the development of self-esteemThe importance of transition in children’s livesLanguage as a vital means of communicationAll behaviour is a communicationIndependence develops through dependence. Staff responding to children at their emotional / developmental level enables them to move on. The response to the individual child is “as they are”, underpinned by a non-judgemental and accepting attitude.Importance of structure and predictability with firm clear boundaries and adults working together supportively. Adults become reliable and consistent in their approach. Recognition from adults about the link between emotional containment and cognitive learning.Staff listening and responding to children in ways that show they are valued and thought about and kept in mind.Staff who acknowledge the feelings aroused by transitions and who understand even small changes in routine (e.g. a visitor, a supply teacher, going to lunch) can be overwhelming and unsettling for some children.Language understood as more than words – a way of putting feelings into words. Children helped to understand and thus to express their feelings and given opportunities for extended conversations.Given what I know about this child and their development what is this child trying to tell me? If a child senses that their feelings are understood this can help to diffuse difficult situations.
6 Theories underpinning this approach Attachment theory and secure relationshipsResilienceMaslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsEco-systemic perspectiveExplain that we will look at these in brief – A “cook’s tour” if you like.If these are requested to be followed up in more depth - e.g. attachment or resilience – these can be looked at as a discussion in its own right and a session in itself.Describe attachment and resilience as the cornerstones of nurturing approaches.Emphasise the importance of positive learning environments (eco-systemic).
7 Attachment Theory and Secure relationships The quality of early attachment is thought to impact on an individual’s self-concept and relationships with others.Through interactions with significant others, a young child begins to learn how to attain age appropriate behaviours, developing an increasing self-awareness of their environmentAll the skills learned by a growing infant within a secure relationship will be needed as he approaches and begins to become familiar with the school setting.Secure attachment – 60% approximately. The child knows that his need for sustenance, comfort, safety and reassurance will be more or less met. In addition he will receive explanations and a variety of positive models for his own behaviour and others around him.Insecure attachment – the child has experienced inconsistent and incomprehensible behaviour on the part of adults around him. He has to learn to defend himself and focus attention on having his basic needs met.Early parenting styles have been identified as resulting in insecure attachment:Avoidant: Caregiver takes little interest in the child’s needs and may actively play down any expressed distress. This can also be a critical, negative style of parenting where small wrong doings are given swift and inappropriately severe punishments.Ambivalent: Noisy and attention demanding adults. The child learns to raise his level of arousal in order to gain attention for his needs.Disorganised: Adults behave in inconsistent, frightening and unpredictable ways – alcohol abuse or mental illness. Care-giver is a source of fear or discomfort. Learns that others are dangerous and the need to suppress any attachment needs. Child may need to comfort or care for the parent.
8 Erickson’s Psychological Stages Development is a life long processEmphasises the role of socialisation8 psychosocial stages – described by opposing characteristicsErickson states that it is possible to make up for unsatisfactory early experiences at a later stageOPTIONAL SLIDE – can be used on longer sessions – depends on time and context.Basic Trust vs Mistrust – (0-1 yrs)Trust and hope developsAutonomy vs Shame and Doubt – (1-3 yrs)Developing self-control and self-esteemInitiative vs Guilt – (3-5/6 yrs)Curiosity and initiative encouragedIndustry vs Inferiority – (7-12yrs)Industry and competence developsIdentity vs Role Confusion (12-18 yrs)Aim: to be oneself and share in who you are. FIDELITYIntimacy vs Isolation (20 yrs)Aim: to lose oneself and find oneself in another. LOVEGenerativity vs Stagnation (Late 20s – 50s)Aim: to take care of. CAREEgo Integrity vs Despair (50s+)Aim: to be through having been and to face not being. WISDOM
9 The notion of resilience The capacity to do well despite adverse experience.To “bounce back” having endured adversity“A sensitively laid out and consistently managed … classroom and a warm relationship with a responsive teacher may do more for a child’s craving for a secure base than elaborate efforts around engaging in weekly one hour sessions of therapy”RESEARCH EVIDENCE1.The secure base allows trust, autonomy and initiative to develop.2. Adults who were in care as children remember with gratitude teachers who found them “worth bothering about” and “did not write them off” and who gave them a chance to experience small successes.3. Many stressors over time act to lower a child’s intelligence, but success in academic and other areas can compensate for this and assist recoveryThe following can be incorporated into a handout:DEVELOPING A RESILIENT MINDSET IN CHILDRENConveying and teaching empathyChanging / rewriting negative scriptsHelping all to feel special and appreciatedHaving realistic expectations and goals for each childDiscussing the role of mistakes in the learning processDeveloping responsibility, compassion and a social conscienceTeaching problem solving and decision makingSupporting success – nurturing islands of competence
10 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self ActualisationCognitiveEsteemLove, BelongingSafety NeedsPhysical NeedsWhat do you think children need in order to be able to learn effectively and achieve their potential?Children / young people may not have their basic needs met, yet in school, we are aiming at a high level of motivation.Maslow – a useful framework for understanding the needs and therefore the priorities of these young people.In Education we are intervening at a high level in this hierarchy of needs, aiming to help them become co-operative and social and to achieve their potential. They may be concentrating on more basic priorities and we need to understand why our best efforts may not be successful.Academic issues:We may see their attention and concentration being affected.Transition / change issues:A time where we are required to learn new skills, habits, routines – a real challenge
11 Events cannot be considered in isolation from their context Eco-Systemic perspective – understanding thoughts, feelings and behaviourEvents cannot be considered in isolation from their contextBehaviour is a result of person-situation interactionsWe evaluate situations differently depending on our perceptions and feelingsImportant to consider interpretations of events, attributions, expectations and interactions.Behaviours and strong emotions are not within child or fixed.Assessing –We need to assess our whole school and classroom environments / adult expectations / peer relationsPositive Learning Environments (Birmingham materials) and sociograms (class ratings about work and play).Interventions –Peer Group dynamics – moving and changing groups depending on relationsChallenging negative peer expectationsNurturing Teaching style – warm, respectful, accepting, humourous, confidentIncreasing child decision making / participation – at school level.Home School relationships – attending to the positives
12 Eco- Systemic Perspective Spheres of InfluenceWider worldCommunityHomeSchoolClassChild’sperceptionsCoHSClCwThis to emphasise the contrast to within child explanations.Have current local / national examples of how children are affected by circumstances e.g. recession on young people preparing to leave school
13 Some psychological thinking about behaviour Behaviour is learned in social situationsWe tend to repeat behaviours that are useful in getting our wants/needs metBehaviour needs to be/can be taughtBehaviour can be changedThe only behaviour we can be fully in control of is our own.May be useful for certain contexts
14 Cycle of EmotionsThis to emphasise need for a child / young person in distress to have time to calm down and emotionally recover in a safe space before any talking intervention.
15 5 Key Messages about Behaviour Behaviour is communicationWhat lies ‘beneath’ the presenting behaviour?Adults are ‘detectives’ or ‘problem solvers’Behaviour is the interaction between people and the environmentFeeling, Thinking and Behaving are interconnected - for both children and adults.May be useful for certain contexts
16 Growing nurturing classrooms - part of the process of growing a nurturing school Takes an holistic approach to educationSees emotional well-being as central to the developmental and mental health needs of its pupilsSees emotional well-being as central to the effectiveness of teaching and learningUses a common framework for thinking about the emotional development of its pupilsTakes account of Maslow's theory 'Hierarchy of Needs'Make links here with assessment and Curriculum for Excellence.Have examples of Health and Wellbeing - Experiences and Outcomes to hand.
17 Secondary Nurture Takes account of teenage life experiences Self-image and peer relationshipsReported successes – bereavement, loss and traumaLow key introduction and build up of credibilityColley (2009)Traditionally, groups evolved to give children the opportunity to go through missed early experiences by creating a setting conducive to early developmental learning. To what extent can secondary schools replicate the “classic” nurture group model?6 principles of nurture and key features – double staffing transfer easily. In training for staff – experience of adolescence needs to be acknowledged.If the context for support is created then interventions can take place that support the individuals that need it.The nurture facility can impact on the presentation and engagement of certain individual young people – this impact can be seen and word spreads. Practical benefits for whole school community become acknowledged. As project progresses – information can be disseminated to staff as a whole.Can further embed – mainstream staff to join nurture sessions. Might be lunch time sessions – might impact on school as a whole..
18 Secondary Nurture Takes account of teenage life experiences Self-image and peer relationshipsReported successes – bereavement, loss and traumaLow key introduction and build up of credibilityColley (2010)Traditionally, groups evolved to give children the opportunity to go through missed early experiences by creating a setting conducive to early developmental learning.To what extent can secondary schools replicate the “classic” nurture group model? – Set up groups – enhance existing support.6 principles of nurture and key features – double staffing transfer easily. In training for staff – experience of adolescence needs to be acknowledged.If the context for support is created then interventions can take place that support the individuals that need it.The nurture facility can impact on the presentation and engagement of certain individual young people – this impact can be seen and word spreads. Practical benefits for whole school community become acknowledged. As project progresses – information can be disseminated to staff as a whole.Can further embed – mainstream staff to join nurture sessions. Might be lunch time sessions – might impact on school as a whole.
19 So what does a nurturing school look like? Acknowledgement of the work of Katy Brady and Tania Hutchinson, Trainee Educational Psychologists, University of Dundee. “Developing a Nurturing School: A Self Evaluation Toolkit (July 2009). These materials were developed during placement at Clackmannanshire Psychological Service.As a Trainee in East Dunbartonshire, Katy Brady gave input to the research section of these training materials and co-presented.If there is further interest in the Self-Evaluation Toolkit, Katy Brady can now be contacted at Falkirk Psychological Service from August 2010 and Tania Hutchinson at …………An alternative would be to make use of the Signposting materials created by another PDP group from this session, that specifically refer to nurture:“ Are we a nurturing school and how do we know?”11 questions to explore the theme as a staff group with EP support.So what does a nurturing school look like?
20 What does a nurturing school look like? Partnership workingFostering resilienceLeadershipStaff Style/ approachMoraleRelationshipsTeaching & learningBehaviourPhysical environmentSchool organisationThese sections from the work of Katy Brady and Tania Hutchinson.Relationships: Are there supportive relationships amongst staff, amongst pupils and between staff and pupils?Teaching and Learning: Are staff and pupils engaged in a curriculum which is supportive but challenging?Behaviour: Are expectations made clear and positive behaviours encouraged?Physical Environment: Does the physical environment support nurturing aims?School Organisation: Do the structures in this school facilitate a nurturing approach? For example are there clear communication channels and clear roles and responsibilities?Partnership Working: Does the school work in partnership with pupils, parents and the wider community?Fostering Resilience: Is there a focus on developing coping skills, life skills, social skills and independence?Leadership: Is there a coherent approach to leadership which supports challenges and recognises success?Staff Style/Approach: Does the style and approach of staff reflect a nurturing stance?Morale: Is there a positive morale amongst pupils and staff?Discussion Activity:In small groups, pick one of these themes and discuss ways of making your own classroom more nurturing.