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Training Outline: Aims & Objectives 1.Background Information 2.Factors Involved 3.Problems with a Classification Model 4.Functional Analysis Model 5.Assessment.

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Presentation on theme: "Training Outline: Aims & Objectives 1.Background Information 2.Factors Involved 3.Problems with a Classification Model 4.Functional Analysis Model 5.Assessment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Training Outline: Aims & Objectives 1.Background Information 2.Factors Involved 3.Problems with a Classification Model 4.Functional Analysis Model 5.Assessment Framework 6.Interventions 7.Links with CfE - 4 capacities Enabling children and young people with Attendance Problems to develop the four capacities 15/04/2014 1


3 Nearly 6,000 youngsters could be playing truant on an average day in Scotland 15/04/2014 3

4 More than 1 million days a year were being lost to truancy. 15/04/2014 4

5 A Stable Problem: Total absence rates have remained broadly the same for a decade* 15/04/2014 5 * Around 9% in secondary schools

6 In studies of children with severe attendance problems, around 50% meet the criteria for a psychiatric disorder 15/04/2014 6

7 Between 40% and 50% have been found to have committed offences 15/04/2014 7

8 Truancy at 16yrs has been shown to have an independent association with more unemployment at 23 yrs. 15/04/2014 8

9 Attendance rates are 91.1% in Secondary Schools in Scotland (2008/09) 15/04/2014 9

10 Attendance rates are 90.6% in Secondary Schools in WDC (2008/09) 15/04/2014 10

11 90% attendance = ½ day missed every week!! (Would your boss like you to be off work this much??). Thats practically part time! 15/04/2014 11

12 1 school year at 90% attendance = 4 whole weeks of lessons missed 90% attendance over 5 years of secondary school…. = ½ a school year missed! 15/04/2014 12

13 Every one percentage point increase in absence is associated with a DROP of 0.1 grade points in the combined English & Mathematics Standard Grade Score. 15/04/2014 13

14 Higher Grade = £10.25 per hour Standard Grades = £9.02 per hour No Qualifications = £7.44 per hour Graduate degree = £15.01 per hour 15/04/2014 14

15 If a school can improve attendance by 1%, they will see a 5-6% improvement in attainment. (Department for Children Schools and Families) 15/04/2014 15

16 15/04/2014 16 ACTIVITY 1: 5 MINUTES Brainstorm as many factors as you can that you feel contribute towards non-attendance? ACTIVITY 2: 3 MINUTES Prioritise these factors into your top three?

17 A multi-causal phenomenonA multi-causal phenomenon. A multi-causal phenomenon Exclusions School phobia Depression Bullying Learning difficulties Lack of parental supervision Peer group pressures Care demands of other family members 15/04/2014 17

18 School Withdrawal by Parents Pursuing home schooling Asking an adolescent to secure a job to help support the family Protecting children from kidnapping by an ex- spouse Hiding signs of child abuse 15/04/2014 18

19 MEDICAL CONDITIONS Asthma & other respiratory illnesses Sleep problems Influenza, allergies, dysmenorrhea, diabetes, head lice, dental disease Chronic conditions: –Cancer –Chronic fatigue syndrome –Crohns disease –Dyspepsia –Haemophilia –Irritable bowel syndrome NB. TRUE MEDICAL CONDITIONS MUST BE ADDRESSED FIRST THROUGH A COMPREHENSIVE MEDICAL EXAMINATION 15/04/2014 19

20 Terminology 15/04/2014 20 Absenteeism Legitimate or illegitimate absence from school or class School Phobia Fear based absenteeism School Refusal Anxiety based absenteeism School withdrawal Parent-motivated absenteeism Separation Anxiety Excessive worry & difficulty separating on the part of a child & possibly a parent Truancy IIlegal absence from school or unexcused absence without parental knowledge School Refusal Behaviour Child motivated refusal to attend school

21 Traditional Model of Persistent Non-Attendance Emotional Distress about attending school Parents aware of absence from school Lack of antisocial behaviours Pupil remains at home during the school day Pupil will do school work at home Lack of emotional stress about attending school Absence from school hidden from parents Higher incidence of antisocial behaviours Pupil seeks other peers who are not in school Pupil shows little interest in completing school work. School Refusal / Phobia vs Truancy 15/04/2014 21

22 Problems with Traditional model A significant number of young people demonstrate features of both i.e. –emotional problems (related to school refusal) and anti- social behaviours (related to truancy & conduct disorder). Some pupils may be able to attend school but choose not to, and stay at home with the full knowledge of their parents under the screen of school refusal. Therefore, not particularly useful in informing the most effective approach 15/04/2014 22

23 School Refusal Behaviour A Functional Definition: child-motivated refusal to attend school and/ or difficulties remaining in school for the entire day (Kearney & Silverman, 1996) 15/04/2014 23

24 Advantages of a Functional model 1. By focusing on reasons why the young person is not attending it avoids category confusion 2. It attempts to describe the visible behaviour neutrally 3. Is less presumptive about underlying causes. 4. It offers a clearer framework for assessment. 5. By helping to identify dominant functional reason, it helps formulate a more effective intervention plan. 6. It fits well with a staged & multi-agency approach 15/04/2014 24

25 What is a Functional Behaviour Assessment? It is an investigative process to understand why a behaviour is occurring. An evidenced-based process based on observations, review of records, interviews, and data analysis. It strives to determine immediate and past antecedents and consequences supporting the problem behavior. An FBA is necessary prior to identifying a functionally equivalent replacement behavior. 15/04/2014 25

26 Key Concepts Behaviour occurs in a context, not in a vacuum. We need to consider the environment as well as the child; we cannot assume that the problem is solely within the child. Behaviour continues to be reinforced. This behavior works for the student. The challenge is to identify the purpose or function the behaviour serves, and attempt to identify a replacement behavior that is more acceptable and will serve the same purpose for the student. All too often, we rely on punishment and negative responses. It is not enough to decrease the inappropriate behavior; we must also teach replacement behaviors and allow for practice of those new skills. 15/04/2014 26

27 Key Concepts continued We seem to forget everything we know about learning when it comes to dealing with behaviour. 96% of behavior is learned so it can be unlearned.(Van Acker) Non-attendance can become automatic; the student does not necessarily go through a cognitive process and decide not to attend. When a student must unlearn an inappropriate behaviour and learn an appropriate replacement behaviour, it may take at least 4 to 6 times more practice. Behavior change is not a discrete event; it takes time. 15/04/2014 27

28 Functional Assessment Process Describe the behaviour of concern Identify the specific triggers Describe the patterns of behaviour –Frequency-Intensity-Duration Describe immediate consequences Present Data Brainstorm hypothesis; functions Ask team members for input 15/04/2014 28

29 A Functional Model of School Refusal Behavior 1. To get away from school-related situations that cause distress 2. To get away from school-related social/performance situations that cause distress. 3. To get attention from significant others such as parents. 4. To get to do rewarding activities / experiences outside of school.. 15/04/2014 29

30 Quote "Things should be made as simple as possible, but no simpler. Albert Einstein

31 1. To avoid school related Stimuli that Provoke a Negative Affect (SPNA) i.e. children who refuse school to avoid general distress Behaviours: Fear of a specific school-related object or situation General anxiety or nervousness In-school behaviours designed to avoid class, such as feigned illness Physical complaints that are often vague in nature, such as stomach aches, headaches, nausea, abdominal pain & fatigue Verbal statements about not wanting to be in school or hating school. Common -ve reinforcers can be: bus, lunch, fire alarm, toilets, a teacher, unspecified More concerned about not being in school than wanting to home (see function 3) 15/04/2014 31

32 2. To Escape Aversive Social and / or Evaluative situations (EASE) i.e. avoiding social or performance situations Social Situations: 1. Asking for help, especially from unfamiliar adults or authority figures 2. Attending assemblies or being among a large group of people 3. Interacting with peers – starting & maintaining conversations in playground etc. Performance Situations: 1. Answering a teachers question 2. Eating among people in the dinner hall 3. Speaking or reading in front of others in the class 4. Performing in PE 5. Taking tests or other graded tasks 15/04/2014 32

33 3. To get Attention from Significant others (AS) Behaviours: Defiance about getting to school in the morning, often in the form of temper tantrums Stubborn, wilful, manipulative, or guilt-inducing behaviour to try to stay home Verbal statements about wanting to stay home Desires for parents to attend school with the child or eat lunch with the child Constant telephone calls to parents during the school day Constant questions about when a parent with pick up the child from school Need for reassurance from parents about the consequences of being separated. Running away from the school building to try to get home. 15/04/2014 33

34 4. To receive Tangible Reinforcers outside of school (TR) i.e. to get to do fun activities outside of school. Behaviours: –Watching TV –Sleeping late –Visiting friends –Shopping –Using or abusing drugs and/or alcohol tend to display attention problems & more delinquent/aggressive behaviour 15/04/2014 34

35 Functional Model of SR 3. ASB Child is positively reinforced for school avoidance. 2. EASE Child escapes and avoids unpleasant social or evaluative situations. 4. TR Child receives tangible reinforcement for school avoidance. 1. SPNA Child escapes and avoids specific unpleasant things or people. -ve Reinforcement + ve Reinforcement (Rewards) 15/04/2014 35

36 Approaches to Functional Assessment Triangulation multiple sources of data is more reliable. Indirect through interviews and record reviewsinterviews Direct -observations in a typical day across all settings Who dunnit.movobservationsWho Work output/Grades SEEMIS -Discipline referrals SRAS-R School Refusal Assessment Scale - Revised –sras-p-r.pdfsras-p-r.pdf –School Refusal Scale (C).pdfSchool Refusal Scale (C).pdf 15/04/2014 36

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