2 Section 1 Essential Questions What is the role of political parties in the United States?What are the differences between two-party and one-party political systems?What impact have third-parties had on the United States?
3 Political PartiesPolitical party – a group of citizens with similar views on public issues who work to put their ideas into effective government action.
4 Nominate – select candidates to run for political office. Candidate – a person who runs for government office.Political spectrum- the range of differences in such political views between parties.
6 Two-Party SystemsTwo-party systems – having two main political parties.Democratic Party: more liberal, favors greater role for the federal government in providing social programs.Republican Party: more conservative, more likely to support reducing the power of the federal government in operating social programs.
7 Multiparty SystemsMultiparty system – more than two political parties.Two or more political parties must agree to compromise and work together.Coalition – agreement between two or more political parties.
8 One-Party Governments Voters do not have a choice in political parties.One-party system – a single political party runs the government.Law usually forbids the formation of all other political parties.Examples: Dictatorship or Totalitarian governments
9 Third PartiesCan greatly influence national politics, even though their candidate did not win the election.Teddy Roosevelt (Progressive Party 1912)Lenora Fulani (New Alliance Party 1988, 1992)Ross Perot (United We Stand Party 1992, 1996)Ralph Nader(Green Party 1996,2000,2004,2008)
10 Section 2 Essential Questions How are political parties organized?How do political parties operate at the local level?What are the two main sources of money for financing political campaigns?
11 Political Party Organization Political parties exist for one reason: to nominate and elect candidates to office.Party committees:smaller committeeChairperson is in chargeElected at caucusesNational Committees:Largest committee partyElected at state convention, by voters in a statewide election, or chosen by the state central committee.Selects the date, location, and rules for the party’s national nominating convention.
12 State committee: Local Organizations Each party has a state committee in each of the 50 statesSupervises party organization within that state.Help raise money and organize campaigns.Local OrganizationsPrecincts – voting districtsPolling place – location where voting takes place.Rural precinct – covers large areas of countryside.Precinct leader – organize volunteers to distribute campaign materials and make phone calls and arrange for voters with disabilities to be driven to polling place,.
13 Financing Campaigns Running for political office is VERY expensive! Private financingFederal Election Campaign Reform Act (FECA) (1972): limited political contributions.Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA) (2002): REVISED contribution limits.Requires every political candidate in a federal elections to report the name of each person who contributes $200 or more in a year.Limits individual contributions to candidates to $2100 for primary elections; $2100 for general elections.Federal Election Commission enforces these laws.Soft money contributions: unlimited contributions to activities (advertisements about issues not related to the federal campaign)
14 Public financingPresidential Election Campaign Fund: Americans can contribute $3 of their taxes by checking a box on their federal income tax forms.U.S Treasury distributes fundsPresidential candidate must win party nomination and must raise at least $5000 in private contributions in at least 20 states.
15 Section 3 Essential Questions How do you become a voter in the United States?What is the difference between primary elections and general elections?How has the voting process changed over the years?
16 Become a voter!Must be 18 but can now register at 17!Voting is one of the most important rights we have as citizens.Independent voters – not a member of a political party.ElectionsPrimary elections: takes place first, held in early spring/late summer; party candidates are chosen to run in the general election.General elections: voters choose their leaders from the candidates offered by all political parties.Open primary: voters may vote for a candidate of either major political party.
17 Voting Early voting Voting Today Early 1800s voting was done by voice and was public knowledgeBy 1888, secret ballots were introduced; paper ballot that lists the names of the candidates.Voting become privateVoting TodayPaper ballots, mechanical lever machines, punch cards, direct recording electronic (DRE) system: touch screen.Straight ticket: voting for candidates in the SAME political party.Split ticket: voting for candidates in both political parties
18 Section 4 Essential Questions What is the main purpose of the electoral college?What is the nomination process at the national party conventions?
19 The Electoral CollegePopular vote: vote of the citizens in the country.Presidents are not elected by the popular vote.Citizens votes go towards people called electors.Elector: one of the people chosen from each state and in D.C. who formally select the president and vice president.
20 Electoral College: Group of all electors. Each state has a number of electors equal to the total number of senators and representatives that it has in Congress.Florida has 29 electoral votes.D.C., who has no representatives in Congress has 3 electoral votes.Electoral votes: votes cast by electors for president and VP.Before each presidential election, each political party in every state select electors who promise to vote for the party’s presidential candidate.EXCEPT, Maine and Nebraska, where the popular vote decides where their electoral votes will go.
21 Electors Elect the President Presidential candidate must receive 270 or more electoral votes to win the presidency.There is a chance that no presidential candidate receives the majority of electoral votes.House of Representatives will choose the president from the top three leading candidates.Congress has only done this twice, in 1800 & in 1836.
22 Nomination ProcessCandidate must win party nomination at the political convention.Members in each political party in each state send delegates to their party’s convention.Party’s national nominating convention is held the summer of the presidential election year.Platform: a statement of the party’s views and policies on important issues.Plank: part of a party platform
23 Presidential Candidates Candidates usually determined after primary election.’Officially declared candidate at party’s national convention.
24 Vice Presidential Candidates Vice presidential candidates are usually chosen by who can win votes.Presidential candidate gets most say on deciding who their running mate will be.