Presentation on theme: "The Golden Age of Celtic Scotland. Alexander III Alexander III was only seven years old when he became king in 1241. He had defeated the last great Viking."— Presentation transcript:
Alexander III Alexander III was only seven years old when he became king in 1241. He had defeated the last great Viking invasion at the Battle of Largs in 1263. He was able to bring his powerful nobles under control and he further developed Scottish trade and economy. He developed good cross-border relations with the English. Some historians disagree and claim there was no 'Golden Age', it was made up as Scottish propaganda after the Scottish Wars of Independence.
Death of Alexander Alexander died tragically in 1296. He was travelling by himself to meet his new wife. His horse threw him and he was found with a broken neck. Unfortunately for Scotland all his children had already died. Only his three-year-old granddaughter remained. Margaret would be the next queen of Scots.
The Maid of Norway Margarets mother had been the oldest daughter of Alexander. She had married the King of Norway as a diplomatic move after the Battle of Largs. She died in childbirth, leaving Margaret with her father in Norway. After a lot of negotiations between the Guardians and her father it was agreed she would become the next queen.
Treaty with England A young girl as queen was obviously not going to work. But if she was married to a prince then he could act as the next king. It was decide that the prince of England would wed Margaret. This was decided in the Treaty of Birgham.
Treaty of Birgham In 1291 it was decided that the treaty would go ahead. Margaret would wed the young Prince Edward, son of Edward I. Scotland would remain independent. No Scottish parliament would ever be held outside of Scotland.
The last voyage of the Maid of Norway Margaret was still a young girl and the voyage was undertaken in the middle of winter. She caught pneumonia on board the ship and died at Orkney. Now there was no-one with a clear succession to the throne. That meant only one thing: civil war, as the powerful nobles fought among themselves for the right to be the next king.