4 2.3 Stakeholders Definition: Stakeholders are persons or organizations who are actively involved in the projectorwhose interests may be positively or negatively affectedby the performance or completion of the project.Examples of persons or organizationscustomerssponsorsthe performing organizationthe public
5 2.3 StakeholdersExert influence on the project, its deliverables, and the project team members.The project management team mustidentify both internal and external stakeholdersin order to determine theproject requirements and expectations of all parties involved.Furthermore, the project manager mustmanage the influence of the various stakeholdersin relation to the project requirements to ensure a successful outcome.
8 2.3 Stakeholders Stakeholders Responsibility and Authority: Varying levels when participating on a projectChange over the course of the project life cycle.RANGE from occasional contributions to full project sponsorshipCaution! Can have an adverse IMPACT on the project objectives.
9 2.3 Stakeholders Stakeholder Identification: Stakeholder identification is a continuous processIt can be difficult.Identifying stakeholders and understanding their relative degree of influence on a project is critical. Failure to do so can extend the timeline and raise costs substantially.Impact of late recognition of a stakeholder
10 Organizational cultures and styles Organizational influences onproject managementOrganizational cultures and styles
11 2.4 Organizational Influences on Project Management The organizational culture, style, and structure influence how projects are performed.A project manager should understand these as they affect a project.An organization’sdegree of project management maturity andits project management systemscan also influence the project.When a project involves more than one organizations, the project will be influenced all of them.The organizational culture is an enterprise environmental factor.
12 2.4 Organizational Influences on Project Management Cultures and styles may have a strong influence on a project’s ability to meet its objectives.Cultures and styles are typically known as “cultural norms”The “norms” include [Or What do the cultural norms include?]a common knowledge regarding how to approach getting the work done,what means are considered acceptable for getting the work done, andwho is influential in facilitating the work getting done.The project manager must know which individuals in the organization are the decision makers and work with them to influence project success.
13 2.4 Organizational Influences on Project Management Most organizations have developed unique cultures that manifest in numerous ways including, but not limited to: • Shared visions, values, norms, beliefs, and expectations, • Policies, methods, and procedures, • View of authority relationships, and • Work ethic and work hours. Detailed study of ‘organizational culture’ is beyond the scope of this course.
15 2.4 Organizational Influences on Project Management Organizational structure is an enterprise environmental factorWhy it is important to by understood?It affect the availability of resources and influence how projects are conducted.What are the different types of structures?Organizational structures range from functional to projectized, with a variety of matrix structures between them.Functional StructureMatrix Structures [Weak, Balanced, and Strong]Projectized Structure
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17 2.4 Organizational Influences on Project Management Functional Organization: Key PointsEach employee has one clear superior [Unity of Command]Employees are grouped by specialty [Finance, HR, Marketing etc]Each department will do its project work independent of other department.
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19 2.4 Organizational Influences on Project Management Projectized Organization: Key PointsTeam members are co-locatedMost of the organization’s resources are involved in project workProject Managers have great deal of independence and authorityProjectized organizations often have organizational units called departments, but these groups either report directly to the project manager or provide support services to the various projects.
21 2.4 Organizational Influences on Project Management Matrix Organizations: Advantages and DisadvantagesMatrix Organizations are a blend of functional and projectized characteristics.AdvantagesDisadvantagesHighly visible project objectivesExtra administration is requiredImproved project manager control over resourcesMore than one boss for project teamsMore support from functional areasMore complex to monitor and controlMaximum utilization of scarce resourcesTougher problems with resource allocationBetter coordinationNeed extensive policies and proceduresBetter horizontal and vertical dissemination of informationFunctional manager may have different priorities than project managersTeam members maintain a “home”Higher potential for conflict
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23 2.4 Organizational Influences on Project Management Weak Matrix Organization: Key PointsMaintain many of the characteristics of a functional organizationProject Manager’s role is more of a coordinator or expediter than that of a true project manager.
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25 2.4 Organizational Influences on Project Management Balanced Matrix Organization: Key Points Balanced Matrix organization recognizes the need for a project manager. But it does not provide the project manager with the full authority over the project and project funding.
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27 2.4 Organizational Influences on Project Management Strong Matrix Organization: Key PointsHave many of the characteristics of the projectized organizationCan have a full-time project managers with considerable authorityCan have full-time project administrative staff
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30 Organizational Process assets Organizational influences onproject managementOrganizational Process assets
31 2.4 Organizational Influences on Project Management Definition:Organizational process assets include any or all process related assets, from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to influence the project’s success.Examples:formal and informal plans, policies, procedures, and guidelines.organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information.completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data.Key Points:Updating and adding to the organizational process assets is necessary throughout the projectGenerally, is the responsibility of the project team members.
32 2.4 Organizational Influences on Project Management Categorization: Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: 1. Processes and Procedures >> for conducting work 2. Corporate Knowledge Base >> for storing and retrieving information
33 2.4 Organizational Influences on Project Management Processes and ProceduresOrganizational standard processes such asstandardspolicies [safety and health, ethics, and project management]standard product and project life cyclesquality policies and procedures [process audits, improvement targets, checklists, and standardized process definitions for use in the organization]Standardized guidelines, work instructions, proposal evaluation criteria, and performance measurement criteriaTemplates [risk, work breakdown structure, project schedule network diagram, and contract templates]
34 2.4 Organizational Influences on Project Management Processes and ProceduresGuidelines and criteria for tailoring the organization’s set of standard processes to satisfy the specific needs of the project;Organization communication requirementsProject closure guidelines or requirementsFinancial controls proceduresIssue and defect management proceduresChange control proceduresRisk control proceduresProcedures for prioritizing, approving, and issuing work authorizations.
35 2.4 Organizational Influences on Project Management Corporate Knowledge BaseProcess measurement databases used to collect and make available measurement data on processes and products,Project filesHistorical information and lessons learned knowledge basesIssue and defect management databasesConfiguration management knowledge basesFinancial databases
36 2.4 Organizational Influences on Project Management What is the difference between Enterprise Environmental Factors And Organizational Process Assets ???