Presentation on theme: "Training Session 2 Outline Review of 4 functions"— Presentation transcript:
1‘Enabling children and young people with Attendance Problems to develop the four capacities’ Training Session 2 OutlineReview of 4 functionsFurther assessment considerationsInterventionsLinks with CfE - 4 capacitiesEvaluation28/03/2017
2A Functional Model of School Refusal Behavior To get away from school-related situations that cause distressTo get away from school-related social/performance situations that cause distress.To get attention from significant others such as parents.To get to do rewarding activities / experiences outside of school. .28/03/201722
3+ ve Reinforcement (Rewards) Functional Model of SR1. SPNAChild escapes andavoids specific unpleasant things or people.3. ASBChild is positively reinforced for school avoidance.2. EASEChild escapes and avoids unpleasant social or evaluative situations.4. TRChild receives tangible reinforcement for school avoidance.28/03/2017-ve Reinforcement+ ve Reinforcement (Rewards)
4Approaches to Functional Assessment ‘Triangulation’ multiple sources of data is more reliable.Indirect through interviews and record reviewsDirect -observations in a typical day across all settingsWork output/GradesSEEMIS -Discipline referralsSRAS-R ‘School Refusal Assessment Scale -Revised’28/03/2017
5Assessment Unclear? Try a ‘Mini-Experiment’ - testing your theory / hypothesis Consider allowing the pupil to stay in a base / library rather than going to class for two daysFunction 2 Confirmed: To get away from school-related social / performance situations that cause distressConsider allowing the parent to attend school with pupil for a day.Function 3 Confirmed: Attention from significant others.Provide a large incentive for pupil to attend for two daysFunction 4 Confirmed: Tangible rewardsPeople cannot supply you with good information because they themselves are unsure what is happeningA child may be out of school for such a long time that it is difficult to get information.In other cases, parents disagree with one another, or parents and children disagree about the form and function of school refusal behaviour.In these cases, you will have to consider the preponderance of evidence in one direction or another. Your own behavioural observations will become more critical in these kind of casesCarry out with caution - because this temporarily rewards the pupil for misbehaviour28/03/201755
6InterventionsNo single intervention strategy has proven to be effectiveIntervention should be related to the identified function of non attendanceIntervention should be related to the individual’s needsA multi-stranded approach is key for success, working at levels of individual, class & schoolRemember all interventions should be planned through the JAT.
7confident individuals successful learnerswithenthusiasm and motivation for learningdetermination to reach high standards of achievementopenness to new thinking and ideasand able touse literacy, communication and numeracy skillsuse technology for learningthink creatively and independentlylearn independently and as part of a groupmake reasoned evaluationslink and apply different kinds of learning innew situationsconfident individualswithself respecta sense of physical, mental and emotional wellbeingsecure values and beliefsambitionand able torelate to others and manage themselvespursue a healthy and active lifestylebe self awaredevelop and communicate their own beliefsand view of the worldlive as independently as they canassess risk and take informed decisionsachieve success in different areas of activityTo enable all youngpeople to becomeresponsible citizenswithrespect for otherscommitment to participate responsibly inpolitical, economic, social and cultural lifeand able todevelop knowledge and understanding ofthe world and Scotland’s place in itunderstand different beliefs and culturesmake informed choices and decisionsevaluate environmental, scientific andtechnological issuesdevelop informed, ethical views of complexissueseffective contributorswithan enterprising attituderesilienceself-relianceand able tocommunicate in different ways and indifferent settingswork in partnership and in teamstake the initiative and leadapply critical thinking in new contextscreate and developsolve problemsIn each case the capacity is expanded into ‘attributes’ and ‘capabilities’: it is our task to design a curriculum which will enable each child to develop these attributes and capabilities.You see here the beginning of a winnowing tool for the review of the curriculum – any activity which is not clearly directed to achieving these aims does not earn its keep and should be removed.It is easy from my view point to see where promoting social and emotional competence covers these aims under each capacity.SL – ‘openness to new thinking and ideas’CI – ‘relate to others and manage themselves’ – surely social competence and managing your own emotions is key here.RC – ‘respect for others’ – respect self first and understand your own emotions before you can begin to respect others and recognise and emphathise with their emotions.EC – ‘communicate in different ways and in different settings’7
8Interventions for Function 1 and 2: To Avoid or Escape school related stimuli Discuss the nature of anxiety / stress with the pupil and parentHelp the pupil control the physical feelings of anxietyHelp the pupil develop more realistic thoughtsConsider referral to a social skills groupSupport the pupil with a gradual and phased return back to school full-time
9Activity: In pairsThink of a time you recently felt a bit stressed or anxious:How did you feel physically?What were you thinking?What did you do?
10The Nature of Anxiety & Stress A physical componentTrembling, muscle tension, ‘butterflies in the stomach, nausea, or other bodily symptomsA cognitive or thinking componentSuch as irrational or unjustified beliefs that everyone dislikes the pupil or is judging them harshly when they perform in some wayA Behavioural componentSuch as avoiding certain events, fleeing or escaping upsetting situations, crying, temper tantrums, or non-compliance.From your assessment you should have a good idea about what specific anxiety sequence exists for a particular child.It can be helpful to use visuals to show a child and his parents what seems to be happening in their situation.When discussing a particular anxiety sequence with a child and parents, use multiple, specific and recent examples from the child’s own experiences. Encourage the child and parents to disagree with you if their observations are radically different from your. If necessary, collect additional information from family members to modify your view of the child’s anxiety sequence.Most important, be sure all relevant family members fully undestand the sequence as this will inform the strategy you propose I.e. attend to physical, cognitive ad behavioural must be addressed if the child is to resume full-time school attendance with less distress.
11Everyone is going to laugh at me.I need the toilet.I feel sick.I’m out of here!
12Anxiety & Stress Management BreathingBreath slowly through nose (with mouth closed) and breath slowly out through mouth.Muscle RelaxationTense-Release MethodPartial muscle relaxation only on these areas that are tense.
13Developing more Realistic Thoughts Replacing negative thoughts with positive thoughts will NOT work.Inform pupil and parents about the different kinds of negative thoughts or mental errors commonly made in social and performance situations.
14Identifying Types of automatic -ve Thoughts CatastrophizingThis is the worst thing that can happen to meMind ReadingShe thinks I’m stupid. I know they don’t like me.All-or-None ThinkingIt must be perfect. I can’t do this at all.Over-generalisationI never do anything right.Negative labellingI’m such an idiot
15Identifying Types of automatic -ve Thoughts 2 Fortune TellingI’m going to fail this test. Nobody is going to talk to me.Can’ts or ShouldsI can’t do this. I should have done betterCancelling the positiveI should have done better (usually when someone gives a compliment)A potential problem when trying to get specific thoughts from teenagers is they commonly say “I don’t know”. Or they give you snippets of a thought that are not very helpful.Ask a child to keep a written diary of thoughts when in a particularly stressful situation.Ask a child to perform some anxiety provoking task before you, such as reading, & ask them to say what they are thinking periodically.Keep in mind some pupils are simply not very good at verbalising their thoughts.
16Developing more Realistic Thoughts Am I Scared or nervous about a certain social or performance situation?T:What Thoughts am I having in this situation?O:What Other, more realistic thoughts can I have?P:Praise myself for thinking more realistic thoughtsAdapted from Silverman & Kurtines, 1996The crucial part of the process is the O: the child must create an alternative, more realistic thought about what is happening in the situation.
17Link with Curriculum for Excellence Mental and Emotional Wellbeing:Experiences and OutcomesHWB 0-02aI know that we all experience a variety of thoughts and emotions that affect how we feel and behave and I am learning ways of managing them.
18Helping Pupils develop Realistic Thoughts Reassure pupil that their thoughts are normal & universal, even if negative or skewedProvide Dispute Handle QuestionsProvide STOP log sheetRole play how to engage in the STOP process.Emphasise with the pupil that: Embarrassment is a universal, temporary and manageable condition.Get the pupil to rate the chances of something happening and then test out their erroneous beliefs.
19Dispute Handles Am I 100% sure this will happen (or is happening)? Can I really know what this person thinks of me?What’s the worst thing that can really happen?Have I ever been in this situation before and was it really that bad?How many times has this terrible thing actually happened?Am I the only person that has ever had to deal with this situation?So what if I am not perfect in this situation?Is this really my fault?
20STOP Log (T) (O) (P) Praise myself My Thoughts in this situation Situations at school that bother me(S)My Thoughts in this situation(T)Other helpful thoughts I can have.(O)Praise myself(P)Walk into GymEveryone is staring at meOnly a couple of people are looking my wayI’m proud for thinking differently
21Addressing the Behavioural component: Gradual Reintegration Make sure you, the pupil and the parents are on the ‘same page’ with respect to the pace and scope of the reintegration processHave the pupil enter school and class in the morning and stay for a limited time e.g. 1 period and then go homeGradually increase the amount of time e.g. an extra period every 3 days until full time is reached.From the start, always expect a child to attend school at whatever minimum level they can or have managed.
22Addressing the Behavioural component: Gradual Reintegration 2 The pupil should not be allowed fun activities during school hoursSuggest work sent home by teachers is completedConvey to parents that the default option in the morning should always be to send the child to school, even if minor maladies exist.Suggest pupil is only kept home if significant conditions are presentBe aware that the pupil may show new behaviours to induce nonattendanceSuch as intense physical complaints, temper tantrums, disruptive behaviourTry to discourage a pupil with a history of school refusal behaviour being sent home for such problemsSuggest in-school suspension or detentions.Children may be kept home from school if one or more of the following conditions are present:A temperature of at least 100 degreesFrequent vomitingBleedingHead liceSever diarrhoeaSevere flu-like symptomsAnother very sever medical condition such as intense pain.
23Addressing the Behavioural component: Further tips In time limited situations, try using anxiety management techniques - relaxation, realistic thoughts- concurrently with reintegration plan.Try to avoid some common mistakes during the process such as staff:Becoming overly stern or ‘helpful’ when a pupil is on a part-time timetable.Keep to the initially agreed plan, don’t push for more.However, allow the pupil to attend more if they ask or spontaneously do so.Assume that once the pupil is in school that they no longer have anxiety about being there.Make sure that the agreed reintegration plan is supported by SMT of school so that the pupil is not penalised for partial absence during the reintegration plan.
24Interventions for Function 3: To get Attention from Significant others The foundation for intervention for this function is to re-establish parent control through:Routines, rules, commands, rewards, and sanctions.Establish a set morning routine.Attend to Appropriate behaviours and Ignore Inappropriate behavioursRestructuring Parent CommandsAddress Excessive Reassurance Seeking and Clingy behaviourEstablish formal rewards and sanctions for school attendance / nonattendance.As a last resort, Force School Attendance
25Helping to Establish a set morning routine Design a morning routine with parents that is regular and predictableThe child should be required to rise from bed minutes before entry into schoolThis provides sufficient flexibility to absorb behaviours such as dawdling, crying, and complaints of physical symptomsDivide the morning routine into individual components based on what a child must do to get ready for schoolWashing, dressing, accessorizing, eating breakfast, brushing teeth and hair, making final preparations such as getting their bag ready.Ask the parent how long each activity should take, then give extra time to allow the child to do so.
26Helping to Establish a set morning routine: part 2 Tailor the morning routine to the demands and constraints of an individual familyTry out the routine for a few days to see what needs tweakingEmphasise to parents the importance of remaining consistent and persistent in the routineEncourage parents to focus on positive child behaviours, especially getting up and sticking to the routine.Encourage parents to engage in the same tasks at the same time e.g. eating breakfast, brushing teethEncourage parents to build the expectation that their child is to attend school without discussion
27Restructuring Parent Commands Tell a child exactly what to do.Instead of ‘clean your room’ say ‘pick up all of your clothes off the floor right now’Give short, direct commands that only involve one step.Make a command a command and not an option or a question (not a ‘should’ or ‘can you’). Reduce speech, don’t ‘lecture’.Make sure the child can physically carry it out.Make direct eye contact with a child when making a command so you know you have their full attention.Ensure nothing competes with their child’s attention (e.g. watching television, texting etc)Do a task with a child after giving a command to increase attention and supervision
28Restructuring Parent Commands 2 Encourage parents to be as matter-of-fact and neutral in tone as possible.Eliminate sarcasm of negative statements.Praise good listening and compliance, and discourage poor listening or noncomplianceFinally, tell parents to say to their child:“You’re going to school, end of story.”
29Establishing formal rewards for school attendance The most effective kinds of rewards and sanctions will be attention based.Rewards for appropriate school attendance, or attendance without major problems such as temper tantrums could include:Doing fun activities with a parent iReading stories togetherRunning errands together, going for a walkAlso, set aside a short period of time for successfully completing the morning routineBrief activity with parentWatching some TV.
30Establishing formal sanctions for school nonattendance Help parents identify two or three behaviour problems in the morning and link specific sanctions to these behaviours.A good rule of thumb is that the sanction should be twice the number of minutes a child actively refused schoolE.g. a temper tantrum for 20 minutes should result in 40 minutes of sanction time in the evening.Losing a fun activity with the parentLosing computer or TV timeDiscourage parent from threatening extreme punishmentsIf a child does remain home from school, attention toward the child should be minimized
31Addressing Excessive Reassurance- Seeking and Clingy behaviour In respond to persistent ‘nagging’ by child, the parent should ignore questions or statements about refusing school for at least one hour, then extending this to 2-3 hours.To avoid ‘clingy’ behaviour a parent should:Ensure, the bag is packed the night beforeMinimise conversation with the child and ignore minor complaints on the way to school.Arrive with the child at school at the same time each school day (ideally 10 minutes before bell rings)Should say a final goodbye & leave quickly.You should meet the parent and child on the playground and courteously but quickly escort the child to class
32Forced School Attendance SHOULD ONLY BE CONSIDERED AS A LAST RESORT AND ONLY IF ALL OF THE FOLLOWING CONDITIONS APPLYThe child is younger than 10 yearsThe child has no distress at all about attending schoolThe child is refusing school only for attentionThe child fully understands what will happen if he refuses schoolThe child is missing more days than notTwo adults can take the child to schoolParents have the energy and no reservation about taking the child to schoolYou or another school official know what is planned to happen and meets the parents to escort the child to class quickly.Forced school attendance begins during the morning routine when a child refuses to attend school. Parents first issue a warning that the child must attend school or he will be physically taken to school.School refusal behaviours such as tantrums or crying are ignored.Parents then bring the child to a waiting school official and leave quickly after depositing him at school.Parents and school officials can then speak during the morning session to assess what happened and what may need to change.A severe downside is that if the parents give up on the procedure, reintegrating a child to school in future days will be very difficult. The child has essentially ‘survived’ the strongest intervention possible and will be more emboldened to resist other methods to increase school attendence.
33Interventions for Function 4: Refusing school for tangible rewards outside of school requires: A concerted effort between school officials, parents, and the adolescent.Increasing supervisionDeveloping written contracts to boost incentives for school attendanceEscorting a child from class to classTeaching a child to refuse offers from others to miss schoolGiven we are generally talking about adolescents within this function, it will necessarily involve some negotiation with the young person.You should attempt to have all the family members, including the adolescent, commit to the long term goal of full time school attendance. You may also wish to commit to certain support services that will help a child succeed in school, make school less boring for him, or give him hope that the school year is not lost e.g. creating opportunities for the young person to salvage some academic credit for the year, rearranging classes and lunch time, providing some tutoring, easing deadlines for makeup work.
34Increasing supervision Identifying and proactively short-circuiting high-risk times during the school day when a child is most likely to leave the school campus.Having a child visit you during times he is most likely to be missing school.Using attendance sheet/card a child must have each teacher sign.Knowing exactly where a young person is when he is out of school during school hours and returning him to school when foundEstablishing immediate communication between you and a parent when a child is out of school
35Constructing a Contract Contracts must be written to eliminate problems remembering what all parties must do.Contracts must be time limited and preferably no longer than one week in lengthEveryone must completely agree with all contract provisions or the contract is invalidContract provisions must be within a family’s value system and within their resources, so extravagant provisions must be avoided.Contract provisions must be very clearly defined.Contracts should be as simple and short as possible.
36Sample Contract Privileges Responsibilities For the privilege of seeing her friends on the weekendAlex agrees to have no more than zero marked absences this weekFor the privilege of being paid £7 for tidying her room on SaturdayAlex agrees to have no more than one marked class absence this weekFor the privilege of being paid £3 for tidying her room on SaturdayAlex agrees to have no more than two marked class absences this week
37Sample Contract: General Statements A marked absence is equal to one missed class and is determined by the school‘Tidy your room’ means putting all your clothes away in the wardrobe or chest of drawers, dirty washing in the wash basket, making your bed, putting things away lying on the floor or in the bin and vacuuming the floor.If Alex had one or more marked absence this week, she may not see her friends this weekend.If Alex has two or more marked absences this week, she must tidy her room for free. If she does not tidy her room, then she loses her mobile phone and computer.The contract is good only for this week (Monday - Friday)Everyone who signs this contract agrees to the conditions of this contract and to read and initial the contract every dayYoung Person’s signature:Parent’s signature:Date:
38Helping Young People Refuse Offers to Miss School Encourage them to avoid certain people and placesHelp a young person to use specific statements:My parents and guidance teacher are give me a hard time about going to schoolThey’re all watching me closely and I don’t want detentionI have to stay in school this week if I want to hang with you guys Friday night.A young person can also talk about wanting to finish certain school projects or attend an extra-curricular activityAlternatively they can be encouraged to say nothing and walk away.
39Difficult Parents Combative Parents: Hostile, defiant, sceptical, suspicious, evasive and pessimistic about change. Appear determined to challenge you every step of the way.Dismissive Parents:Lackadaisical about discipline, fail to respond to your suggestions, don’t show up for appointments, don’t return callsConfused Parents:May be tangential in their thinking or bring in irrelevant stories or unrelated information.
40Problematic family dynamics Conflictive family members:Argue and fight with one another. Poor problem solving and communication skillsEnmeshed family members:Over-involved with each other’s lives and may have trouble separating from one anotherIsolated family members:Rarely interact with people outside the family unit, including school officialsDetached family members:Relatively uninterested in each other’s lives, which may lead to lax discipline and poor supervisionMixed dynamics: some combination of above
41Suggested Approaches: REMEMBER: Not all young people who refuse school have difficult parents or problematic family dynamicsIncrease collaborative contactParents are generally more receptive if they know a child’ absenteeism is tracked at school and if school officials let them know immediately about unexcused absences.When speaking to parents, emphasise a non-defensive collaborative approach.Be neutral and matter of fact in your tone and listen carefully to what a parent saysTry to steer conversation away from past events to what can be done in the next few daysWork closely with professionals from other agencies, social work, health, psychological services that a family is involved with.
42Link with Curriculum for Excellence Mental and Emotional Wellbeing:Experiences and OutcomesHWB 0-03aI understand that there are people I can talk to and that there are a number of ways in which I can gain access to practical & emotional support to help me & others in a range of circumstancesResponsibilities of All
43Activity in Groups of 4:Briefly share a case of a pupil who has had attendance problems?What do you think was the dominant reason / function?Share what strategies you think may also have been useful in light of today’s training?Reference:Kearney, C.A (2008) Helping School Refusing Children & their Parent. A Guide for School Based Professionals. Oxford University Press