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Aspects of language. Those little things... There are a number of easily used techniques which, whether in speech or writing, will help to persuade our.

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Presentation on theme: "Aspects of language. Those little things... There are a number of easily used techniques which, whether in speech or writing, will help to persuade our."— Presentation transcript:

1 Aspects of language

2 Those little things... There are a number of easily used techniques which, whether in speech or writing, will help to persuade our audience. It is all about how we use words. Effective use of language is subtle but has great impact. Consider some of the following techniques. Try to identify them in your close reading and use them in your own writing.

3 Linking We have already spoken about how it is important to ensure that your essay or speech has a logical progression of events: we want to avoid a style that simply lists unrelated points. However, logical progression has to be signalled for the reader. We do this by linking.

4 A link in a chain or a link between two points, like a bridge over a river, always does two things. It links two things by touching one of them at a one point and touching the other at a different point. Links work exactly the same way in writing. West side East side

5 Linking ideas Think about the following argument: 1.Many argue that the banks were to blame for the start of the current financial crisis because they gave mortgages to people who couldn't really afford them. 2.However, to claim this is to ignore the element of free choice. 3.The people who borrowed that money didn't have to. They could easily have refused.

6 Think about the second sentence. However, to claim this is to ignore the element of free choice. How does this link what comes before to what comes after?

7 First, what does come before? Many argue that the banks were to blame for the start of the current financial crisis because they gave mortgages to people who couldn't really afford them. What words in the second sentence 'touch' – that is, link to – that idea? However, to claim this is to ignore the element of free choice.

8 Many argue that the banks were to blame for the start of the current financial crisis because they gave mortgages to people who couldn't really afford them. However, to claim this is to ignore the element of free choice. So the words 'However, to claim this' link back to the idea that the banks were to blame for the present recession.

9 Now, let's think about what comes after? What words in the second sentence 'touch' – that is, link to – that idea? However, to claim this is to ignore the element of free choice. Those people who borrowed that money didn't have to. They could easily have refused.

10 However, to claim this is to ignore the element of free choice. Those people who borrowed that money didn't have to. They could easily have refused. So the words 'the element of free choice' link on to the idea that people could have chosen not to take out loans they couldn't afford.

11 Your writing Identify a number of links from your own reading of newspapers, articles, essays and past close-reading papers. Identify two ideas in your own writing and consider how you might link them or improve the link you already have.

12 Quotes from... nobody knows All punctuation marks are separators. Whether we are using inverted commas (quotation marks) for direct speech, titles or quotes, we use them to separate 'someone else's words' from the body of the text. Writers often use inverted commas to indicate words which are unattributed: that is, we don't know who said them.

13 Unattributed quotations Think about the sentence: Many people believe that reality talent shows like X-Factor have been a revelation in the entertainment industry. Here, we know that many people believe that X-Factor is fantastic.

14 Unattributed quotations Now consider this: TV critic Gillian Worsley believes that reality talent shows like X-Factor have been a 'revelation' in the entertainment industry. Here, we know that Gillian Worsley believes that X-Factor is fantastic.

15 Unattributed quotations But what about this sentence: Many people believe that reality talent shows like X-Factor have been a 'revelation' in the entertainment industry. Discuss the difference here.

16 Expressing opinion with punctuation! Here, we know that many people believe that X-Factor is fantastic – but we don't know which people. We do know that the word 'revelation' is someone else's words – the inverted commas tell us that – but we don't know whose precisely. However, while we don't know whose words they are, we do know whose they are not. They are not the author's words. And if the writer is saying that 'these are someone else's words, not mine, what does that suggest about his opinion of the words?

17 Your writing Identify a number of unattributed quotations from your own reading of newspapers, articles, essays and past close-reading papers. Identify some ideas in your own writing where you could cast doubt on an argument just by using inverted commas.

18 Expressing opinion with words Of course, we express our opinion in words, but the choices we make about our words can make our argument much more persuasive. This means that we can strengthen our argument by replacing neutral words with more powerful words. We can use emotive language.

19 Emotive language Think about the sentence: The rate at which species are becoming extinct is worrying. This states a fact (species are becoming extinct) and expresses a viewpoint (this is worrying).

20 Emotive language Now think about the sentence: The horrifically accelerated rate at which precious species are being wiped off the face of the planet is nightmarish. What words have been inserted? What words have been substituted? Is meaning changed? What is the effect?

21 Your writing Identify a number of examples from your own reading of newspapers, articles, essays and past close-reading papers where the author chooses to use or insert emotive words instead of using a more neutral option. Identify some ideas in your own writing where you could strengthen an argument by inserting or substituting emotive words.

22 Being ironic Although it is often easy to identify, irony is sometimes a difficult technique to define or to use. Irony is when a writer or speaker expresses an opinion by saying something which both the writer and the reader know to be untrue.

23 Oooh, how sarcastic... Discuss the effectiveness of how the writers express their feelings in the following two sentences about the problem of land mines throughout the world: I don't agree that companies that make landmines to kill and maim people should then make a profit from clearing those mines. If it's right that companies that make landmines to kill and maim people then make a profit from clearing those mines, then down is up, white is black and Adolf Hitler was a wee sweetie.

24 Your writing Identify a number of examples of irony from your own reading of newspapers, articles, essays and past close-reading papers. Identify some ideas in your own writing where you could strengthen an argument by using irony.

25 Self / Peer Evaluation Indicate on the bar chart opposite how comfortable you feel about using linking, emotive language and irony to enhance your writing: 6 is I feel very comfortable. Write out one or more questions you would like to ask about each of these techniques.


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