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Introduction to natural hazards Learning intention To understand what a natural hazard is. Success criteria To be able to give some examples of natural.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to natural hazards Learning intention To understand what a natural hazard is. Success criteria To be able to give some examples of natural."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to natural hazards Learning intention To understand what a natural hazard is. Success criteria To be able to give some examples of natural hazards.

2 What is a natural hazard? Activity 1 Read this statement: Natural hazards are sudden events that occur in nature. Placemat activity Take an A3 sheet of paper. Draw a circle in the middle and write Natural hazards in the centre. Now split your page into four.four

3 Natural hazards

4 Each person must now write down some examples of what they think are natural hazards. After 1 minute spin the page round and look at what each person has written. You can then share your ideas as a class. One person from each group will write some examples on the board. What are natural hazards?

5 How many natural hazards did you find as a class? Did you miss any out? Watch the next slide to find out. What are natural hazards?

6 Volcanoes Earthquakes Tsunamis Hurricanes, cyclones and typhoons Forest fires Ice Landslides Tornados Floods Snow storms Avalanches Hail stones

7 Natural disasters The worst natural hazards are called natural disasters. An earthquake in a very remote area will not affect many people. An earthquake in a large city will affect many people.

8 Activity 2: Worksheets 1 and 2 Graph activity Look at your list of the top 10 worse natural disasters. Complete the graph. Natural disasters

9 Table 1: Top 10 natural disasters RankNatural disaster type LocationYearDeaths 1FloodsChina19314,000,000 2FloodsChina18872,000,000 3EarthquakeChina ,000 4CyclonePakistan ,000 5CycloneIndia ,000 6EarthquakeTurkey526250,000 7EarthquakeChina ,000 8EarthquakeChina ,000 9EarthquakeHaiti ,000 10Earthquake (Tsunami) Indian Ocean ,000

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11 Introduction to natural hazards Learning intention To understand what a natural hazard is. Success criteria To be able to give some examples of natural hazards.

12 Structure of the Earth Learning intention To understand the internal structure of the earth. Success criteria -Can identify and name the different layers that make up the Earth. -Can show how the different layers differ in thickness from each other.

13 Activity 1: Partners Draw the inside of the Earth. (Worksheet 3)

14 Activity 2: Class (share and discuss) Who do you think is correct? Why? Would you make changes to your diagram?

15 Structure of the Earth Activity 3: Class (website)

16 Activity 4 Can you name the different layers of the Earth? Write them down on your whiteboard Inner core Outer core Mantle Crust

17 Structure of the Earth Activity 5: Worksheet 4 Crust (5 – 40 km) = 50 – 400 Hampden Parks Mantle (2885 km) = Hollybrook to Tripoli, Libya Outer core (2270 km) = Hollybrook to Podgorica, Montenegro Inner core (1216 km) = Hollybrook to Lappeenranta, Finland

18 Activity 6: Partners Use the plasticine to make a model of the Earth. You must include the inner core, outer core, mantle and crust. Show the different thicknesses of each layer.

19 Structure of the Earth Learning intention To understand the internal structure of the earth. Success criteria -Can identify and name the different layers that make up the Earth. -Can show how the different layers differ in thickness from each other.

20 Plate tectonics Learning intention To understand how plate tectonics caused continental drifting. Success criteria -Can explain what plate tectonics is. -Can show how the Earths crust plates moved and caused the continents to drift apart.

21 Activity 1: Worksheet 5 What is plate tectonics? The Earth's crust consists of a number of moving pieces or plates that are always colliding or pulling apart. These plates float on a partially molten mantle beneath. The molten layer is driven by heat from the Earth's inner core. Plate tectonics video

22 Activity 2: Class (website) Continental drift: The drift of the plates across the surface of the Earth has been going on over millions of years, and is still changing the outward appearance of the Earth. When you look at the map of the world, you see how well the east coast of North and South America fits into the west coast of Europe and Africa. Over millions of years these continents have slowly drifted apart. Continental Drift Example 1

23 Activity 3: Class (website and game) Naming the continents Game

24 Activity 4: Worksheet 6 Use the map above to check you have correctly labelled the continents. Correct any that you need to.

25 Activity 5: Worksheet 7 When placing the different continents together think about what shapes fit together and where they are currently situated.

26 Plate tectonics Learning intention To understand how plate tectonics caused continental drifting. Success criteria -Can explain what plate tectonics is. -Can show how the Earths crust plates moved and caused the continents to drift apart.

27 Volcanoes Learning intention To find out what causes volcanoes and to compare the hazards and benefits they present. Success criteria -Can explain what causes them. -Can identify where they are most likely to be located and explain why. -Can compare the hazards and benefits of living near a volcano.

28 Activity 1 Interesting fact The word volcano comes from the name of the Roman God of fire, Vulcan. Vulcan was said to have had a forge (a place to melt and shape iron) on Vulcano, an active volcano on the Lipari Islands in Italy.

29 Activity 2: Think, pair and share 1. What is a volcano? 2. Discuss what you think causes volcanoes.

30 Activity 3: Worksheet 8 Your guess/reasoning about what causes volcanoes is your theory! Write down your theory in Worksheet 8.

31 Activity 4 Now we are going to research your theory and see if it is true. This website will tell you a bit more about volcanoes. Volcanoes

32 Activity 5 What is a volcano? A volcano is a conical hill or mountain formed by material from the mantle being forced through an opening or vent in the Earth's crust.

33 Activity 6: Worksheet 8 Vent Side vent Magma chamber Conduit Ash cloud Lava Crust

34 Activity 7 Lets recap! Volcanoes

35 Activity 8: Group work In groups of four make a cartoon strip to show how a volcano erupts. Remember to show the different stages. Key words: lava volcanosurface plates mantlehot crusterupt magma

36 Activity 9: Worksheet 9 As a group assess how you worked as a group and complete the grid in Worksheet 9.

37 Activity 10: Peer assessment Swap your poster with another groups. Peer assess their poster using Three stars and a wish on Post-it notes. When peer assessing link back to the task: -Do they correctly and clearly explain how a volcano erupts? -Do they show the different stages? -Does their cartoon strip contain all the key words? -Does their cartoon strip contain relevant diagrams?

38 Activity 11 There are three different ways to classify a volcano: 1.Active volcano – one that is erupting or likely to erupt at any time. 2.Dormant volcano – one that is temporarily inactive, but could erupt in the future. The word dormant means sleeping. 3.Extinct volcano – one that is unlikely to erupt again. Eruption = the release of lava, rocks and gases from a volcano.

39 Activity 12: Worksheets 10 and 11 Task: To find out where active volcanoes are most likely to be located. Carousel activity 1.Organise class into groups of seven. 2.Within each group give each member one of the following areas (write down your area on a label and wear it). 1. Oceans2. North America3. South America 4. Europe5. Africa6. Asia 7. Australia 3.Go and find your partners that have the same label. 4.With your partners find out if your area has active volcanoes. Complete Worksheet Go back to your main group and share your findings so you can complete your maps in Worksheet 11.

40 Activity 13 Most volcanoes are found along a belt, called the Ring of Fire, that encircles the Pacific Ocean. Volcanic activity also occurs in such places as Hawaii, Iceland, southern Europe and at the bottom of the sea.

41 Activity 14: Worksheet 12 Most of the world's volcanoes lie along the Ring of Fire, a zone of volcano and earthquake activity along the rim of the Pacific Ocean. Although the Ring of Fire covers only about 1% of the Earth's surface, it has more than half the world's active volcanoes. There are about 350 historically active volcanoes in this zone.

42 Activity 15 What causes volcanoes? AnswerAnswer Plate tectonics theory: Interactive view of tectonic plates Links between plates and volcanoes Scientists have developed a theory, called plate tectonics, that explains why most volcanoes -- as well as most earthquakes and mountains -- occur only in certain places. The Earths crust is split into seven pieces called plates. Most volcanoes are formed where two plates collide. Volcanoes can also be formed when two plates spread apart. This usually takes place on the ocean floor. As the plates move apart, magma below the crust moves up between the plates. Magma theory: A number of volcanoes -- for example those in Hawaii -- lie far from plate boundaries. Some scientists believe such volcanoes develop when a huge column of magma rises from inside the Earth up to the surface. Part of this magma breaks through the crust and forms a volcano. This is sometimes called a hot spot. Quiz Plates colliding Plates move apart Hot spot

43 Activity 16: Worksheet 13 – Section A What are the dangers of a volcano? Video of volcano erupting Video of lava flow Video of volcano erupting in Chile 1.Hot lava 2.Rock falls 3.Mud flows 4.Tsunamis (if volcano erupts under the sea) 5.Clouds of ash 6.Poisonous gases 7.Dark skies, severe winds and heavy rains may follow an eruption for months afterwards. Effects on people and the environment 1.Buildings are destroyed and people are made homeless. 2.People are killed. 3.Clouds of ash cover plants, making them inedible. 4.Poisonous gases kill people and animals. 5.Dust causes lung disease and illnesses to the survivors.

44 Activity 17 Lava destroys everything it engulfs but, because it usually flows quite slowly, it rarely kills people. There is more danger from the hot gas and volcanic bombs of rock and ash, which can sweep down a volcanos slopes at speeds of 120 mph. How fast is that? 120 mph video120 mph video

45 So what are the benefits of living near a volcano? The ash from volcanoes contains minerals which make soil very fertile. This makes the soil very good for farming and growing things. A big economical advantage of volcanoes is that they generate tourism, which gives locals jobs at hotels, etc. A country such as Hawaii gets a lot of income from tourists. Volcanoes provide spectacular scenery. Volcanoes form precious stones, therefore mining is carried out, which also gives locals jobs. Activity 18: Worksheet 13 – Section B One in 10 people in the world live within danger range of an active volcano.

46 Activity 19: Worksheet 14 Diamond 9 Activity In groups sort out the cards into a diamond shape by putting the most important statement at the top and the least at the bottom. Question: What are the benefits of living near a volcano?

47 Activity 20: Game Despite the danger that active volcanoes present, many people choose to live on their slopes. Scientists are sometimes able to predict eruptions and warn those at risk. Watch this video Predicting eruptionsPredicting eruptions Try this game Responding to volcano gameResponding to volcano game

48 Volcanoes Learning intention To find out what causes volcanoes and to compare the hazards and benefits they present. Success criteria -Can explain what causes them. -Can identify where they are most likely to be located and explain why. -Can compare the hazards and benefits of living near a volcano.

49 Earthquakes Learning intention To find out what causes earthquakes and to compare how we respond to them. Success criteria -Can explain what causes them. -Can identify where they are most likely to be located and explain why. -Can compare how developed and developing countries respond to them.

50 Activity 1: Think, pair and share 1. What is an earthquake? 2. Discuss what you think causes earthquakes.

51 Activity 2: Worksheet 15 Your guess/reasoning about what causes earthquakes is your theory! Write down your theory in Worksheet 15. (Only complete Q1 of worksheet.)

52 Activity 3 Now we are going to research your theory and see if it is true. This film will show you an earthquake. Earthquake video

53 Activity 4: Worksheet 15 What causes earthquakes? AnswerAnswer (Complete Q2 and Q3 of worksheet.)

54 Activity 5: Worksheet 16 A useful way of measuring earthquakes is by measuring the amount of damage they cause. The scale used to measure the damage caused by earthquakes is called the Mercalli scale. There are 12 ratings in the Mercalli scale. In groups of three put the 12 stages in the correct order.

55 Not felt. Slight external damage. Vibrations like the passing of a lorry. Chimneys broken, people run outside. Bridges and dams collapse, railway lines bend. People in cars stop, partial collapse of buildings. Broken crockery, everyone feels it. Felt when at rest. Ground surface opens up, pipes burst. Objects hurled into the air, areas devastated. Landslides, buildings destroyed. Cars rock and loose objects move.

56 Activity 6: Worksheet 17 Mapping from memory In groups of four complete your map to show where earthquakes have taken place this week. Each member of the group will take a turn to look at the map showing earthquake locations. They must then return to the group and fill in your blank map while trying to remember where the locations should be marked. Answer

57 Activity 7: Worksheet 18 In your group look at your completed map. Discuss why you think the earthquakes are located at these points. Write your theory in your worksheet. Answer: Because they are near plate boundaries. Movement of plates against each other can cause fault lines (cracks in the Earths crust), which can lead to earthquakes.

58 Activity 8: Worksheets 18 and 19 We are now going to look at how developed and developing countries respond to earthquakes.

59 Activity 9: Worksheet 20 and Information sheet A We will do this by comparing the three Ps of the earthquakes in Haiti in 2010 and San Francisco in 1989: Preparation – How well had they prepared (evacuation plans, emergency services etc.) ? Prediction – Did they predict the earthquake? Protection – Were there buildings designed to withstand an earthquake? Video from Haiti Video of San Francisco earthquake

60 Activity 10: Think, pair and share Discuss why you think there were differences in the injury/death tolls and the damage caused to buildings between the Haiti earthquake and the San Francisco earthquake.

61 Activity 11: Worksheet 21 Diamond 9 Activity In groups sort out the cards into a diamond shape by putting the most important statement at the top and the least at the bottom. Question: What are the important factors to increase the survival rates during and following an earthquake?

62 Earthquakes Learning intention To find out what causes earthquakes and to compare how we respond to them. Success criteria -Can explain what causes them. -Can identify where they are most likely to be located and explain why. -Can compare how developed and developing countries respond to them.

63 Activity 1: Lesson starter Can you name the different layers of the Earth? Write them down on your whiteboard Inner core Outer core Mantle Crust Tsunamis

64 Learning intention To understand how tsunamis are made Success criteria -Can research and select relevant information. -Can explain what a tsunami is. -Can describe what causes a tsunami. -Can successfully work in a group.

65 Activity 2 The start Video

66 Activity 3: Worksheet 22 In groups make a poster to describe: 1. what tsunamis are 2. how they are made. Important: You will have to present your completed poster to the class. Your poster must include a diagram.

67 Activity 4: Worksheet 23 The explanation! Video You should now use Worksheet 23 to assess your groups performance.

68 Activity 5 Why is learning important? Answer

69 Activity 6: Walkabout talkabout Instructions: 1. Split into three groups. 2. Each group should choose a scribe and have a different coloured pen. 3. Each group should add as many answers to their poster in the time given. 4. Each group should then move on to the next poster. Before you start adding your own answers you should read the previous groups and add a cross, tick or question mark to show if you agree, dont agree or need the other group to explain their answer. The poster titles are: 1. What are tsunamis? 2. What are the effects of tsunamis? 3. Why is it important to learn about tsunamis?

70 Tsunamis Learning intention To understand how tsunamis are made Success criteria -Can research and select relevant information. -Can explain what a tsunami is. -Can describe what causes a tsunami. -Can successfully work in a group.

71 Mini topic booklet Congratulations, you are now ready to start your mini topic.

72 TV broadcast For the remainder of the topic your classroom will become a TV newsroom. Your task is to work in groups to produce a news report on a recent natural disaster. Your broadcasts will be filmed!

73 Learning intention To produce a TV news report on a natural disaster. TV news report on a natural disaster

74 Success criteria You should be able to clearly explain two reasons for investigating your mini topic. You should use the words location and change when explaining your reasons. (For example: I chose to investigate the Haiti earthquake to understand more about why it happened, its location and how the country changed after this.) Your report should make a contrast. (For example, you may wish to contrast why so many people died in Haiti compared to the San Francisco earthquake.)

75 Activity 1: What makes a good broadcast? As a class we must decide on the criteria for a good broadcast. Think, pair and share Think – on your own, think about what makes a good news story. Pair – with your partner discuss your ideas and write them below. Share – share these ideas as a class.

76 The roles Newsreader Will read the news report to the whole of the class. Will also help to decide on what information the report should contain. Writer Will produce a script for the newsreader. Will also help to decide on what information the report should contain.

77 The roles Director Will be responsible for ensuring that the news report is produced on time. Will make sure the report is of the correct length and contains the required information. Will be responsible for rehearsals and making sure everyone is working together. Will also help to decide on what information the report should contain. Runner The runners job is very important. They will make sure everyone in the news team has the materials they need for working, for example paper, pens, information. The runner will also count in the newsreader during the live report. The runner will also help to decide on what information the report should contain.

78 Some ideas Introduction of presenter Headline story with newsflash, eg Bridges collapse! Location of event Time of event Description of what happened Key facts and figures Eyewitness accounts Clear voice It should make sense It should be informative Be creative!

79 Activity 2 The following should be completed and handed to the station manager (teacher): group name (TV station name), group roles (director, newsreader, writer, runner)

80 Activity 3 You are under pressure to write a newsflash. There has been a major incident somewhere in the world and your news team will be going live in 1 hours time! In the next 10 minutes you must do the following: Complete a spider diagram (mind map) of ideas for your script and presentation. Place your headline in the circle to begin your diagram.

81 Learning intention To produce a TV news report on a natural disaster. TV news report on a natural disaster

82 Success criteria You should be able to clearly explain two reasons for investigating your mini topic. You can use the words location and change when explaining your reasons. (For example: I chose to investigate the Haiti earthquake to understand more about why it happened, its location and how the country changed after this.) Your report should make a contrast. (For example, you may wish to contrast why so many people died in Haiti compared to another earthquake in a rich country.)

83 Plenary What new thing did you learn today? How could your learning help you? How did you learn today? What helped you learn today? Could you use this learning in another subject? What capacity did you develop today – SCRE? What do you want to learn more about? Where could you learn more about this?


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