3 Geographical Inequalities The Widening Gap Daily Record‘’Shock report revealsthe poorest places inBritain are all inScotland’’This report was published (1999) by the Townsend Centre for International Poverty Research.The study was carried out by Bristol University into health inequalities.Contributors included doctors, geographers and experts on government policy.They studied the statistics (health rates, education, earnings, unemployment and life expectancy) in all the constituencies in the UK and produced a league table in terms of wealth and health.
4 Geographical Inequalities The Widening Gap FindingsThey confirmed that evidence showed there was a north-south divide in health.That this gap was widening.That the six worst health areas in the UK were in Glasgow.And that the main cause was poverty.
5 Geographical Findings The Widening Gap The Report identified that geographical inequalities in ill health existed in the UK on national and regional levels.A north-south divide exists in terms of the wealth and health of the people.The poorest places in the UK were in Scotland.The worst six areas in terms of wealth and health were in Glasgow.A causal link existed between poverty and ill health.
6 Geographical Inequalities The Widening GapPage 34, UK Social Issues ISBN X
7 Evidence of Inequalities Regional Scale (BBC News 2 December 1999) Death rates (SMR<65)Infant mortality ratesChildren in povertyGlasgow Shettleston23420859%Glasgow Springburn21720260%Glasgow Maryhill19618863%Glasgow Pollock18717352%Glasgow Anniesland18117651%Glasgow Baillieston18019554%Manchester Central18958%UK10027%Worst Health
8 Evidence of Inequalities Regional Scale (BBC News 2 December 1999) Best HealthDeath rates (SMR<65)Infant mortality ratesChildren in povertyWokingham65515%Woodspring6012%Romsey58South Cambridgeshire6613%South Norfolk695715%Northavon705011%Buckingham71UK10027%
9 Geographical Inequalities The Widening Gap FindingsChildren living in the worst households were twice as likely to die in infancy as their peers in wealthy areas in the SE of England.At school they were 1.5 times more likely to fail exams and 3.6 times more likely to fail to get a job when they left. Those who did get jobs earned 25% less.
10 Edinburgh: 18% of GDP Glasgow: 34% of GDP Glasgow / Edinburgh Their findings not only identified a north-south divide but also differences between cities.Together, Glasgow and Edinburgh produced more than 52% of Scotland’s GDP in 1999.But GDP per capita for Edinburgh was 33% higher than that for Glasgow - in other words, average incomes in Edinburgh are higher.This reflects an era of high unemployment in Glasgow during the ’70s and ’80s and although the situation has much improved in Glasgow, it has left an accumulated legacy of poverty, social exclusion and ill health.On average, people in Edinburgh live 4 years longer than people in Glasgow.
11 The Widening Gap (1999) Regional Difference The Report identified the worst 6 areas in terms of ill health as being in Glasgow.The areas included: Shettleston, Springburn, Maryhill, Pollock, Anniesland, Baillieston and Govan.Glasgow had Scotland’shighest infant mortality rate of 103/100034% of people live in poverty18.5% of men are unemployed, 13% chronically sickin one year, 181 people will have died under the age of 65, 63% of these deaths could have been avoided.Glasgow
12 DrumchapelBearsdenThe Report also highlighted the huge gap in the health of people living in the poorest areas and wealthiest areas of Glasgow.
13 Two babies born one mile apart One in Drumchapel and the other in Kelvinside. The baby born in Drumchapel will most likely be:born underweightlive ten years lesstwice as likely to die before its first birthdaythree times more likely to die of heart disease or bronchitisthree times more likely to die of breast cancertwice as likely to die of lung cancerfour times more likely to suffer from a psychiatric disorder2.5 times more likely to die before 65.DrumchapelKelvinside
14 RecommendationThe publication of The Widening Gap led to immediate calls for urgent action to ease the problems of poverty in Glasgow and this resulted in an increased allocation of funding to Glasgow, especially the most deprived areas.The Report concluded that ‘’the government would not be able to reduce inequalities across the UK unless it tackled poverty through the redistribution of income and wealth’’.