Bloom s Classification: - Cognitive: - acquisition and application of knowledge and comprehension (understanding) - Affective: - attitudes, feelings and values - Psychomotor: - manipulative or physical skills
Cognitive Domain Classified by Bloom in a hierarchical order into: - Knowledge: recall of information - Comprehension: interpret and make sense or meaning of information - Application: apply or link facts, principles and theory to practice - Analysis: analyse or interpret facts, principles and theories - Synthesis: make, sequence or create new information or products from available information/ materials - Evaluation: make critical judgement
Modern Classification Lower Order Cognitive: Knowledge Comprehension Higher Order Cognitive: Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Affective Psychomotor Interpersonal - interpersonal and group interactive and life skills
Learning Outcomes The five-stage approach of the SOLO taxonomy may be used to inform the design of courses/activities: Pre-structural level: learner is simply acquiring generic information both connected and unconnected with the subject matter. Unistructural level: learner can make simple and obvious connections, but their significance is not appropriately comprehended. Multistructural level: learner is able to make some connections and more advanced connections between issues are missed. In addition, the structuring and sequencing of knowledge may not be as required. Relational level: learner is able to recognise the importance of the parts in relation to the whole with regard to concepts, approaches and systems which underpin deep learning. Extended abstract level: learner makes connections within and out with the subject/discipline, can generalise, integrate, validate and transfer principles and ideas to other learning situations and contexts. Source: Structure of the Observed Learning Outcomes [SOLO Taxonomy] (Adapted after Biggs and Collis1982 - quoted in Biggs and Tang 2007)
Progression to Employment or Further Studies Transferable/Core skills Cognitive Skills Personal Development Competencies/ Capabilities Values and Ethics JAttributes and attitudes Juwah, C. 2004
Writing Learning Outcomes -What is the curriculum/activity supposed to deliver? -Functional Analysis: break down the curriculum/course/module into specific parts
Activity Notes 1.Work in groups of five 2.Choose a reporter who will present your group s work at the plenary session - Analyse the four learning outcomes on the next slide by completing the grid provided. - State whether the outcomes meet the SMART criteria.
SpecificMeasur- able Achiev- able ReliableTranspar ent Outcomes: 1 2 3 4 5
Examples of Bad and Good Learning Outcomes To know the functions of the human circulatory system. To understand the working of a four-stroke engine. Formulate and justify strategies to resolve problems raised by the design brief using appropriate methodologies including the use of completion design software.
Examples of Bad and Good Learning Outcomes Apply multi-discipline lifecycle process methodologies and thinking in the design and execution of well operations. Develop and implement robust safety management systems, ensure that equipment is fit for purpose and risk from well operations are identified, evaluated and controlled in compliance with standard operating procedures.
Writing Learning Outcomes Hint Use the SCQF Level Learning Outcomes (LLOs) and information on Slide 8 to guide you in writing the module. Ensure that your outcomes are aligned to the intended aims of the programme/module.
Writing Learning Outcomes Refer to the SCQF Guidelines for: Levels – Undergraduate (SCQF Levels 7 – 10) or Masters (SCQF Level 11) Specific Domains: Knowledge and Understanding, Intellectual Skills, Practical Skills, Employability, etc.) -Write effective learning outcomes for the specific parts using the SMART approach. The outcomes may be written in the terms shown on the next slide
Characteristics of Good Learning Outcome(s) An active verb (i.e. involves action or doing) Specific – states what the learner will be able to do at the end of the learning activity Clear and unambiguous Measurable – qualitatively or quantitatively (Link this to appropriate assessment methods) Achievable and Realistic Transparent (and/or Time bound) May specify conditions or constraints under which performance is carried out
Exemplar LOs SCQF 10 (Honours Year) - Select and use appropriate teaching methods to meet students different learning styles. SCQF 11 (Postgraduate Level) - Use reflective frameworks to critically analyse and reflect on the impact of your teaching approaches to students learning.
Hint You should start your outcome statement as follows: At the end of the course, the student is expected to be able …..
Learning Outcomes written in an incremental approach helps focus students in their learning
Hint A maximum of FIVE learning outcomes per module (as too many outcomes become unmanageable in terms of assessment workload) All outcomes must be assessed or else they become redundant. (Do not write outcomes that cannot or wont be assessed) Do not use know and understand in writing outcomes
Hint Check to ensure that LOs are aligned to the Level Learning Outcomes (SCQF)
References ADAM, S., 2008. Learning outcomes current developments in Europe: Update on the issues and applications of learning outcomes associated with the bologna process. Paper presented at the Bologna Seminar: Learning outcomes based higher education: the Scottish experience, 21 - 22 February 2008, at Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland.
References BIGGS, J. and TANG, C. 2007. Teaching for Quality Learning at University. Buckingham: Society for Research into Higher Education RHE & Open University Press. MOON, J., 2004. Linking Levels, Learning Outcomes and Assessment Criteria. Bologna Seminar, Edinburgh http://www.bologna- bergen2005.no/EN/Bol_sem/Seminars/0407 01-02Edinburgh/040701- 02Linking_Levels_plus_ass_crit-Moon.pdf