Presentation on theme: "Confidentiality, Consent and Data Protection Elizabeth M Robertson Deputy Medical Director Grampian University Hospitals Trust."— Presentation transcript:
Confidentiality, Consent and Data Protection Elizabeth M Robertson Deputy Medical Director Grampian University Hospitals Trust
Confidentiality, Consent and Data Protection Who can give consent On whose behalf In what circumstances
Patients have a fundamental right to: Receive sufficient verbal and written information to enable an informed decision to be made. Grant or withhold consent prior to any examination or treatment. - unless the patient is an adult with incapacity or a child
Consent is only legally valid if certain conditions are satisfied. This means that in any particular case a clinician must satisfy him/herself that any consent obtained from a patient meets these conditions.
Conditions The patient is legally competent (i.e capable of consenting) The consent is given freely The patient has been adequately informed and has understood the information given
Conditions The patient has been given sufficient time to reflect on the information provided before giving consent If a significant period of time has elapsed between consent and procedure, new consent will be obtained If the treatment or procedure has changed significantly, new consent will be obtained
Rationale Successful patient/clinician relationships depend on trust Consent is a process rather than a one off decision All steps should be documented Consent forms are evidence of a process and not the process itself
Definition Consent is the voluntary and continuing permission of the patient to receive a particular treatment or procedure based upon adequate knowledge and understanding of ………….
Purpose Nature Likely effects Significant risks (including likelihood of success and outcomes) Consequences of no treatment or alternative treatment
Permission given under unfair or undue pressure is not consent
Capacity and Incapacity The Adults with Incapacity (Scotland) Act 2000 Relates to property, financial and personal welfare Section 5 - medical treatment
The clinician primarily responsible for the care of an adult is required to assess and document the adults capacity to consent to any proposed medical treatment.
Core principles Benefit to the adult Minimum restriction to adults freedom to achieve the desired benefit Account of adults wishes if these can be ascertained Consultation with relevant others (carers) Encouragement to exercise residual capacity
Adults deemed incapable ? Clinician with primary responsibility Certificate of incapacity As only adult or legally appointed proxy with welfare powers can consent Certificate will stand in place of an incapable patients consent ? More formal intervention or guardianship order may be more appropriate
Incapable Incapable of Acting; or Making decision; or Communicating decisions; or Understanding decisions; or Retaining memory of decisions
In practical terms An adult should be able to demonstrate capacity to……….. Understand in simple language what the treatment is, its purpose and nature and why it is being proposed Understand its principle risks, benefits and alternatives
In practical terms Understand in broad terms, the consequences of not receiving the proposed treatment Retain the information Make the choice freely
The Act accepts that no single measure of capacity exists at present. Relatives - Carers and Professionals will all be involved in decisions about incapacity
In an emergency ? The situation in an emergency is unchanged by the act. Treatment to save life or serious harm should be given Consideration of matters of incapacity and consent occur later
Children Before examining, treating or caring for a child, the clinician must also seek consent. 16 years and over are presumed to have competence to give consent for themselves
Children Younger children who understand fully what is involved can also give consent (although ideally parents would be involved) In other cases - someone with parental responsibility must give consent on the childs behalf
Children If a competent child consents to treatment, a parent cannot over-ride that consent.
Who obtains consent ? This is the responsibility of the clinician providing the treatment, carrying out the investigation or performing the surgical operation or procedure. Discuss Provide information for patients understanding Obtain consent
Provision of Information The amount of information will vary dependant upon The nature of the condition Complexity of treatment Risks associated Patient wishes
The balance Listening to what the patients wants Providing enough to ensure that the patients decisions are informed
What information ? Purpose of investigation or treatment Details and uncertainties of diagnosis Options for treatment (inc. none ) Benefits and probabilities of success Side effects and risks Name of clinician with overall responsibility Reminder about change of mind - even after consent form signed
Specific consent forms Female and Male sterilisation Patients unable to consent Post mortem examination Photography and video recording Objection to transfusion of blood and blood products Research Genetic medicine Radio-iodine treatment (and similar )