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Romanesque Architecture Architectural History ACT 322 Doris Kemp.

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Presentation on theme: "Romanesque Architecture Architectural History ACT 322 Doris Kemp."— Presentation transcript:

1 Romanesque Architecture Architectural History ACT 322 Doris Kemp

2 Topics Carolingian Pre-Romanesque Carolingian Pre-Romanesque Carolingian Pre-Romanesque: Structures Carolingian Pre-Romanesque: Structures Romanesque Architecture Romanesque Architecture Romanesque Architecture: Early Romanesque in Germany and Normandy Romanesque Architecture: Early Romanesque in Germany and Normandy

3 Carolingian Pre-Romanesque After the move of the seat of the Roman Empire to Constantinople, the Greco-Roman culture went into collapse After the move of the seat of the Roman Empire to Constantinople, the Greco-Roman culture went into collapse Latin was displaced as the common language Latin was displaced as the common language Disintegration of Roman law Disintegration of Roman law Cessation of urban life Cessation of urban life A major decline in monumental art and architecture A major decline in monumental art and architecture

4 Carolingian Pre-Romanesque Charlemagne Charlemagne King of the Franks who vowed to restore the Roman culture to its height King of the Franks who vowed to restore the Roman culture to its height Crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the Roman pope on Christmas Day, 800 A.D. Crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the Roman pope on Christmas Day, 800 A.D. Carolingian Renaissance Carolingian Renaissance Latin for Charles the Great (Charlemagne) Latin for Charles the Great (Charlemagne) Renewal of the Latin language, literature, art, and architecture Renewal of the Latin language, literature, art, and architecture Birth of Pre-Romanesque architecture Birth of Pre-Romanesque architecture

5 Carolingian Pre-Romanesque Pre-Romanesque Pre-Romanesque Architecture looked back to Rome in its glory days Architecture looked back to Rome in its glory days The style was never recaptured despite the effort The style was never recaptured despite the effort Structures were reinterpretations of antiquity, forward- looking and innovative Structures were reinterpretations of antiquity, forward- looking and innovative Non-Roman qualities of abstraction, fragmentation, and volumetric energy Non-Roman qualities of abstraction, fragmentation, and volumetric energy

6 Carolingian Pre-Romanesque: Structures Traits of Carolingian Pre-Romanesque structures: Traits of Carolingian Pre-Romanesque structures: Strongly defined spatial units Strongly defined spatial units Chains of modular construction Chains of modular construction fragmentation fragmentation

7 Carolingian Pre-Romanesque: Structures Palatine Chapel Palatine Chapel c. 796 – 805 c. 796 – 805 Located at Charlemagne's palace at Aachen Located at Charlemagne's palace at Aachen Domed Domed Double-shelled Double-shelled Two-storied octagon plan Two-storied octagon plan Monumental façade Monumental façade

8 Carolingian Pre-Romanesque: Structures Palatine Chapel Palatine Chapel Reminiscent of early Christian and Byzantine Architecture Reminiscent of early Christian and Byzantine Architecture Was a rebuilt version of S. Vitale Was a rebuilt version of S. Vitale One of the most impressive of late antique Roman structures One of the most impressive of late antique Roman structures Photo: Sullivan

9 Carolingian Pre-Romanesque: Structures Photo: Sullivan

10 Carolingian Pre-Romanesque: Structures Photo: Sullivan

11 Carolingian Pre-Romanesque: Structures St. Riquier St. Riquier Transformed the fundamental concept of the early Christian basilica Transformed the fundamental concept of the early Christian basilica More complex, composed of many independent group formations More complex, composed of many independent group formations Powerful vertical massings at both ends Powerful vertical massings at both ends

12 Carolingian Pre-Romanesque: Structures Photo: Sullivan

13 Carolingian Pre-Romanesque: Structures Gatehouse/Torhalle Gatehouse/Torhalle Located in Lorsch, Germany Located in Lorsch, Germany c. 767 – 774 c. 767 – 774 Saddle-roofed central block flanked by twin vertical stair towers Saddle-roofed central block flanked by twin vertical stair towers Features a chapel originally dedicated to St. Michael Features a chapel originally dedicated to St. Michael Resembles Roman triumphal arches Resembles Roman triumphal arches Two-storied facades Two-storied facades Richly ornamented Richly ornamented

14 Carolingian Pre-Romanesque: Structures Photo: Sullivan

15 Carolingian Pre-Romanesque: Structures Photo: Sullivan

16 Carolingian Pre-Romanesque: Structures Germigny-des-Pres Germigny-des-Pres Located on the Loire River Located on the Loire River c. 806 c. 806 Reflects the influences of both Byzantium and Islam Reflects the influences of both Byzantium and Islam Photo: Sullivan

17 Carolingian Pre-Romanesque: Structures Photo: Sullivan

18 Carolingian Pre-Romanesque: Structures The main aspects of the standard monastery were conceived during the Carolingian period The main aspects of the standard monastery were conceived during the Carolingian period St. Gall plan St. Gall plan Ideal architectural plan of a traditional monastery Ideal architectural plan of a traditional monastery Was never built Was never built Plan included: Plan included: A small city featuring a medical center and a cemetery A small city featuring a medical center and a cemetery U-shaped corridor to provide orderly traffic flow U-shaped corridor to provide orderly traffic flow

19 Romanesque Architecture Charlemagne’s death in 814 led to a dark century for Europe due ton invaders Charlemagne’s death in 814 led to a dark century for Europe due ton invaders Slavic, Magyar, Arab pirates, and Vikings Slavic, Magyar, Arab pirates, and Vikings When the invasions ceased economic conditions improved When the invasions ceased economic conditions improved Cultural revival and religious enthusiasm brought about a wave of church-building Cultural revival and religious enthusiasm brought about a wave of church-building

20 Romanesque Architecture: Early Romanesque in Germany and Normandy Imperial Romanesque (Germany) Imperial Romanesque (Germany) Antithetical tendencies Antithetical tendencies Conservative and nostalgic Conservative and nostalgic Looked back fondly to the works of Charlemagne Looked back fondly to the works of Charlemagne Inventive and progressive Inventive and progressive Drew on early Christian, imperial Roman, and Byzantine models Drew on early Christian, imperial Roman, and Byzantine models

21 Romanesque Architecture: Early Romanesque in Germany and Normandy Munster Cathedral Munster Cathedral Located in Essen, Germany Located in Essen, Germany Late 10 th century Late 10 th century Retrospective, loosely based on St. Riquier and St. Gall Retrospective, loosely based on St. Riquier and St. Gall Freedom in design and energy that contrast with the perfectionist spirit of the cathedral’s Byzantine models and the determination of Charlemagne's architecture Freedom in design and energy that contrast with the perfectionist spirit of the cathedral’s Byzantine models and the determination of Charlemagne's architecture

22 Romanesque Architecture: Early Romanesque in Germany and Normandy Photo: Sullivan

23 Romanesque Architecture: Early Romanesque in Germany and Normandy St. Michael’s Cathedral St. Michael’s Cathedral Located at Hildesheim, Germany Located at Hildesheim, Germany More contemporary style than at Munster More contemporary style than at Munster Square schematic Square schematic c. 1001 - 1033 c. 1001 - 1033 Photo: Sullivan

24 Romanesque Architecture: Early Romanesque in Germany and Normandy Imperial Cathedral of Speyer Imperial Cathedral of Speyer Located in Speyer, Germany Located in Speyer, Germany c. 1030 – 1060 c. 1030 – 1060 Built by Emperor Konrad II Built by Emperor Konrad II Impressive wall articulation Impressive wall articulation Crucial for the development of Romanesque architecture Crucial for the development of Romanesque architecture Wall shaped into powerful multilayer configuration Wall shaped into powerful multilayer configuration

25 Romanesque Architecture: Early Romanesque in Germany and Normandy Photo: Sullivan

26 Romanesque Architecture: Early Romanesque in Germany and Normandy Norman Romanesque Norman Romanesque In the early tenth century the Vikings settled in Normandy, France In the early tenth century the Vikings settled in Normandy, France Buildings in Normandy were crucial to the development in France Buildings in Normandy were crucial to the development in France

27 Romanesque Architecture: Early Romanesque in Germany and Normandy Mont-Saint-Michael Mont-Saint-Michael Medieval shrine in Normandy, France Medieval shrine in Normandy, France Norman counterpart to the Speyer Cathedral in Germany Norman counterpart to the Speyer Cathedral in Germany Photo: Sullivan

28 Romanesque Architecture: Early Romanesque in Germany and Normandy Abbey Church of Notre Dame de Jumieges Abbey Church of Notre Dame de Jumieges Notable for the immense height of its crossing tower Notable for the immense height of its crossing tower Facade was derived from Carolingian westwork tradition Facade was derived from Carolingian westwork tradition Central structure was set forward between twin bases of square towers that rise as octagons above lines of the roof Central structure was set forward between twin bases of square towers that rise as octagons above lines of the roof Set precedence for the twin-towered facades that dominated the exteriors of the major French Gothic cathedrals Set precedence for the twin-towered facades that dominated the exteriors of the major French Gothic cathedrals

29 Romanesque Architecture: Early Romanesque in Germany and Normandy Photo: Sullivan

30 Romanesque Architecture: Early Romanesque in Germany and Normandy Photo: Sullivan

31 References Sullivan, Mary; http://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/ Sullivan, Mary; http://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/ http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.html http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.html Trachtenburg/Hyman; Architecture: From Prehistory to Postmodernity Trachtenburg/Hyman; Architecture: From Prehistory to Postmodernity Wodehouse/Moffett; A History of Western Architecture Wodehouse/Moffett; A History of Western Architecture

32 Romanesque Architecture Architectural History ACT 322 Doris Kemp


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