Presentation on theme: "Experiences with wind energy development, planning and public acceptance in Denmark Bernd Möller, Ph.D. Sustainable Energy Planning & Management Group."— Presentation transcript:
Experiences with wind energy development, planning and public acceptance in Denmark Bernd Möller, Ph.D. Sustainable Energy Planning & Management Group Department of Development and Planning Aalborg University, Denmark
About 5,300 turbines produce 20 % of the national electricity demand. Decommissioning of ageing turbines currently decreases production. History of wind energy development PJ Data source: Danish Energy Authority, 2008
Elements of Danish wind energy policy Long term national energy plans Fixed feed-in tariff system Promotion of local ownership, cooperatives Spatial planning on local and regional levels Fostering of new technologies
Problems associated to wind energy in DK Most land-based locations occupied or unsuitable Planning requirements are tightened Increasing turbine size aggravates visibility problem Growing local resistance against wind power projects Structural changes (tariffs, ownership etc) New legislation to compensate for loss of property value
Chances for future wind energy Offshore: yes, but at high costs and risks 3 West coast municipalities may show the way Re-invention of re-powering schemes Rejuvenated interest in local and cooperate ownership, even off shore Continued build of mid-range turbines (2MW) economically and socially feasible Municipal ownership an overseen chance.
Thy: Energy and nature Very rural Site of first national park 240 turbines cover 70% of demand The region is almost CO 2 neutral (excl. transport) Local owners; income and acceptance Wind energy is part of tourism promotion. Data sources: Danish Energy Authority; KMS; MIM, all 2008
Wind energy and landscapes Connotation with the environment / being green Iconic for sustainable development Valuable landscapes deemed unsuitable for visibility reasons On a local scale neighbours play a certain role (NIMBY) Visibility assessment is mandatory, yet not on a regional scale
Increasing size Average total height [m] Year of installation Bubble area proportional to number of turbines Data source: Danish Energy Authority, 2008
The advantage of upscaling (EWEA, 2006)
Ownership Number of turbines Cooperative ownership involves local people economically and hence improves local acceptance. The good experiences with neighbour ownership point towards commonly managed wind resources as a good solution. Data source: EMD International, 2007 Individuals Cooperatives Utilities
Distributed investments Investments in wind energy are well distributed in the country and not necessarily in rural areas alone, which is positive for social acceptance in population. Statistics on a 10 x 10 km grid. Data sources: EMD.dk and Statistics Denmark
Wind energy planning in Denmark In the early days permissions to erect turbines were given without much regulation and with no common planning framework. Since 1995 a nation-wide planning framework has been established. Municipalities have the planning authority for new wind turbines. Turbines are located in favourable wind regimes, but only where little impact on neighbours can be expected. A thorough planning process looks into all aspects of location in a democratic way. A mandatory EIA follows, concluded by a local plan. (Wind power planning zones around Aalborg, AIS)
Dynamic wind energy landscapes The visual impact of wind turbines as landscape elements has to be seen dynamically Turbines grow in size, rotational speed decreases Turbines are erected in changing patterns Spatial planning is adjusted to development Public planning also has a learning curve! Cautiously expressed, people may get used to turbines in landscapes.
Wind energy development in Denmark through the times 1985: 774 turbines 44 MW 0.2 % of power production 1990: 2,570 turbines 317 MW 2 % of power production 1995: 3,553 turbines 589 MW 4 % of power production 2000: 6,236 turbines 2,389 MW 13 % of power production 2005: 5,286 turbines 3,127 MW 20% of power production Data source: Danish Energy Authority, 2007
Spatial analyses of wind energy economy and the environment Temporal cumulative viewshed analysis of wind turbines Intervisibility analysis of landscape openness. Wind energy production and its spatial distribution The costs to society (socio-economic costs) of utilising the wind resource Turbine ownership and proximity A combination of wind power production, wind power economy and environmental impact is carried out on a regional / national scale.
The study area Data sources: EEA, 2005; KMS, 2007
Visibility during times Data sources: KMS, 2007; Danish Energy Authority, 2008
Intervisibility to model landscape openness How much of a landscape can be seen from everywhere else? Visual landscape openness may assist regional planning. Data sources: KMS, 2007; Danish Energy Authority, 2008
Intervisibility and wind energy economy The best locations for wind energy are not necessarily the most visible. Relative turbine visibility Production costs high low high low Data sources: KMS, 2007; EMD International, 2001
Intervisibility and proximity Most wind turbines are located in areas with moderate visibility; few large utility-owned parks have a high cumulative weighted impact. Relative turbine visibility high low high low Weighted proximity Data sources: KMS, 2007; Danish Energy Authority, 2008
Conclusions Wind energy landscapes are dynamic – turbine development and their lifespan included Technology development must not accelerate more than public view on landscapes Local involvement in planning as well as economically by local ownership is crucial to create acceptance The economy must be right: –feed-in tariffs for low risk investments –cooperative or public ownership for low interest rate –geographical spreading of investments for better acceptance and lower system costs. The dilemma of scale economies and scale impact must be dealt with.
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