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JSP and Servelets.

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Presentation on theme: "JSP and Servelets."— Presentation transcript:

1 JSP and Servelets

2 How does JSP work? NOT a Java scripting language NOT like php
JSP are NOT parsed on request Java code must involve classes, creation of objects, etc… JSP is a designer-friendly way of writing servlets

3 Clock example

4 2 clock.jsp read 1 translation client 3 4 6 request processing 5
GET clock.jsp 1 Server with Tomcat Web Container client Servelet generate 3 http response 6 clock.class compile and deploy 4 execute 5 request processing

5 public class clock implements Servlet {
public void service (ServletRequest r, ServletResponse s) throws ServletException, IOException { s.setContentType (“text/html”); PrintWriter out = s.getWriter (); out.println (“<HTML>”); out.println (“<HEAD>”); out.println (“<TITLE>JSP… </TITLE>”); out.println (“</HEAD>”); out.println (“<BODY>”);

6 out.println (“<H1>Date and Time</H1>”); (new java.util.Date.toString()); out.println (“</BODY>”); out.println (“</HTML>”); }

7 JSP directive elements
applied when the JSP is compiled into a servelet Only executed once (on compilation) Do not affect the response Used to set up resources such as Java classes inclusions

8 JSP directive elements
specify page information (static) page … > scripting language, error page include … > includes a file, e.g. an applet taglib … > declare a tag library (custom actions)

9 JSP and http

10 JSP and http A JSP is a servelet Permanently resident in server memory
Multi-threaded Request and response objects Sessions and cookies

11 Accessing request information
Methods of the request object provide all request information object is called “request” public String getParameter (String name) public String getMethod () public String getHeader (String name) public Cookie [] getCookies ()

12 javax.servelet.http.Cookie class
getName () the name of the cookie getValue(), setValue (String value) gets/sets the value of a cookie getDomain(), setDomain(String dName) get/set the cookie domain name getPath(), String setPath(String path) get/set the request path the cookie is associated with getMaxAge(), setMaxAge (int expiry) get/set maximum age for the cookie

13 javax.servelet.http.HttpSession
provides standard functionality for handling sessions handles cookies as standard but must be extended to handle URL rewriting holds client state info resident in memory automatically times out abandoned sessions created/returned by HttpServeletRequest class getSession method

14 JSP and Java Beans

15 Java Beans ordinary Java classes with the following properties:
introspection customization events properties persistence

16 Java Beans introspection properties persistence
an analyser can inspect how the Bean works properties naming conventions for getter and setter methods persistence implement the Serializable interface Bean state can be stored

17 Example Java bean public class ExampleBean implements { private String name = null; private int score = 0; public ExampleBean() {} // Empty constructor /* Getter and Setter Methods */ public String getName() { return name; } public void setName(String s) { name = s;

18 Example Java bean public int getScore() { return score; }
public void setScore(int i) { score = i; /* No method required to implement Serializable */

19 JSP action elements action elements <jsp:useBean>
perform an action when page is requested <jsp:useBean> uses a JavaBean component <jsp:getProperty> property from JavaBean used in the page <jsp:setProperty> sets a JavaBean property (possibly using request information)

20 </jsp:useBean>
id="userInfo" class="com.ora.jsp.beans.userInfo.UserInfoBean“ > <jsp:setProperty name = “userInfo” property = “userName” value = “Gandalf” /> </jsp:useBean>

21 The following information was saved:
<ul> <li>User Name: <jsp:getProperty name="userInfo" property="userName"/></li> <li> Address: property=" Addr"/></li> </ul></body></html>

22 Other JSP action elements
<jsp:include> responses from other jsp pages or servelets <jsp:forward> forwards processing to other jsp or servelet <jsp:param> passes a parameter with include or forward <jsp:plugin> generates the HTML to embed an applet

23 JSP and web applications

24 Java 2 Enterprise Edition
J2EE Edition of Java Architecture specially designed for server-based applications Including web applications Highly compatible with M-V-C Client Tier Middle Tier Enterprise Information System Tier

25 J2EE Overview EJB Container application EJB EJB Database Web Container
JMS JavaIDL RMI JNDI XML servlet servlet browser JSP JDBC JTA/JTS Client Tier Middle Tier EIS Tier

26 Which J2EE components? Pure JSP Simple applications Prototyping
Use M-V-C Business logic pages (model) presentation pages (view) Request processing pages (controller) Enhance with JavaBeans components and custom tags

27 Tomcat web container Tomcat subdirectories: bin common/lib src conf
scripts to run Tomcat common/lib jar archives with javax.servlet class files src interface definitions for javax.servlet classes conf configuration files (Tomcat parameters)

28 Tomcat web container docs work webapps HTML documentation about Tomcat
a working directory for temporary files and generated servlets webapps all web applications run on Tomcat are placed in subdirectories of this

29 deploying a web application
create a subdirectory of webapps, e.g. myDir create a WEB-INF subdirectory of myDir WEB-INF contains web.xml file specifies deployment parameters for the web application lib directory (optional) contains any special class libraries (.jar files) needed .classes directory class files for servlet and helper classes defined for the specific application

30 the web.xml file written in XML and contains environment data
descriptions of servlet names and locations custom tag libraries security constraints on particular servlets multiple url aliases for servlets etc

31 Creating a web app in NetBeans

32 Creating a web app in NetBeans

33 Creating a web app in NetBeans

34 Creating a web app in NetBeans

35 Creating a web app in NetBeans

36 Creating a web app in NetBeans

37 Creating a web app in NetBeans

38 Adding a JSP to the Web App

39 Adding a JSP to the Web App

40 Adding a JSP to the Web App

41 Adding a JSP to the Web App

42 Running the Web App

43 Browsing the JSP

44 Adding custom tags to a JSP

45 custom tags used to farm out processing to specialised classes or Beans identified by a tag library directive basic JSP tag library e.g. <jsp:useBean … /> Apache Taglib custom tag library JavaServerFaces, struts libraries can define your own custom tags

46 custom tags defined as Java classes that extend base classes in javax.servlet.jsp.tagext package represented in a JSP using the syntax <lib:tag att1=“...” att1=“...” att1=“...” /> (can also have element content) custom tag in JSP replaced by code in the servelet on translation

47 custom tag example package myPack; import java.util.*;
import*; import javax.servelet.jsp.*; import javax.servelet.jsp.tagext .*; public class DateStamper extends TagSupport { protected String comment = null; public String getComment () { return comment; }

48 public void setComment (String cm) {
comment = cm; } public int doEndTag () { try { String dateStr = (new Date()).toString (); pageContext.getOut ().println ( “<hr>This page entitled, “ + comment + “, was printed on “ + dateStr + “<br>”); catch (Exception e) {//error handling} return EVAL_PAGE; }}

49 <taglib> <tlibversion>1.0 </tlibversion> <jspversion>1.1 </jspversion> <shortname>myTags</shortname> <tag> <name>DateStamper</name> <tagclass>myPack.DateStamper</tagclass> <bodycontent>empty</bodycontent> <attribute> <name>comment</name> <required>true</required> </attribute> </tag> </taglib> tag library definition file, myTags.tld

50 deployment in a web application
<taglib> <taglib-uri> /myTags </taglib-uri> <taglib-location> /WEB-INF/tlds/myTags.tld </taglib-location </taglib> </web-app>

51 Tag libraries

52 using the tag in a JSP taglib uri=“/myTagLibrary” prefix = “myTags” %> <html><head><title>Using a custom tag</title></head> <body bgcolor = “FFFFFF”> <h1>Using a custom tag</h1> <p>Hello World. My custom tag has the following to say: <myTags:DateStamper comment=“This is a custom tag” /> </body></html>

53 JSP, Bean and Servelet example

54 description football league result web application
users request match results different requests possible database search html front end user interaction through web-browser servelet/JSP request handling and data processing

55 system architecture holds a single table Teams containing match data
football.jsp highly graphic interactive results page football.html Database handles the request, submits SQL and processes result FootballSearchBean represents football game data contained in a DB table FootballGame static page to request results helper class to create the DB connection DBInfo tomcat

56 football.html call JSP with a search parameter
<html><head><title>Football Search</title></head> <body bgcolor = “white”> <h1>Search the football league table</h1> <ul><li> <a href = “ List all games </a> </li><li> <a href = List drawn matches </a> </li></ul> </body></html> call JSP with a search parameter call JSP with a search parameter

57 FootballGame class to handle results of data query
package football; import java.sql; public class FootballGame { private String team1,team2 private int score1, score2; public String getTeam1 () {return team1;} // similar methods to get team2, score1, score2 public void loadFromResultSet (ResultSet r) throws SQLException { team1 = r.getString (“TEAM1”); // ditto for team2 score1 = r.getInt (“SCORE1”); // ditto for score2 } to handle results of data query loads DB query result into the FootballGame object

58 FootballSearchBean handle DB queries to use Java Iterator class
package football; import java.sql; import java.util; public class FootballSearchbean { private static final allstr = “select * from TEAMS”; private static final drawstr = “select * from TEAMS where SCORE1=SCORE2”; private String searchType; public void setSearchType (String type) { searchType = type; } handle DB queries to use Java Iterator class searchType query parameter from football.html ends up here set up SQL query strings

59 FootballSearchBean contains results from the DB query
private Vector results; public Iterator games () { if (results != null) return results.iterator (); else return null; } public int numGames () { return results.size (); return 0; contains results from the DB query for manipulating retrieved data counts the number of results

60 FootballSearchBean connect to the database
public void doSearch () { results = new Vector (); try { Connection db = DBInfo.connectToDatabase (); Statement stmt = db.createStatement (); String request = allstr; if (“drawn”.equals (searchType)) request = drawstr; // else add code for other search options connect to the database create a Statement object (SQL query) to be fired at the DB

61 FootballSearchBean ResultSet r = stmt.executeQuery (request); while ( ()) { FootballGame fg = new FootballGame (); fg.loadFromResultSet r; results.addElement (fg); } r.close (); stmt.close (); db.close (); } catch (Exception e) {// error-handling code here} fire the query at the DB and store the retrieved rows create a FootballGame object for each retrieved table row add the FootballGame to the results Vector

62 football.jsp util package for the Iterator class
page import = “java.util.*” %> page import = “football.*” %> <html><head><title>League Results</title></head><body> <!-- cool and flashy DHTML content inserted here by the web designer. Embedded amongst that will be: --> <h1>Results</h1> <jsp:useBean id = “theLeague” class = “football.FootballSearchBean” /> <jsp:setProperty name = “theLeague” property = “*”/> util package for the Iterator class football package with its classes searchType property from football.html passed to Bean here Bean created and given an Id

63 football.jsp <% theLeague.doSearch (); %> <% if (theLeague.numGames () == 0) { %> <p> No games played yet </p> <% } else { %> <!-- there are results so set up a table --> <table> <caption>Results</caption> <tr> <th align = “center”>Home Team</th> <th align = “center”>Home Team Score</th> <th align = “center”>Away Team</th> <th align = “center”>Away Team Score</th> </tr> searches the database with the user selected search option determines the size of the result set and acts accordingly

64 football.jsp creates an Iterator containing FootballGame objects
<% Iterator it = (); while (it.hasNext ()) { FootballGame fg = (FootballGame) (); %> <tr> <td><%= fg.getTeam1 () %> </td> <td><%= fg.getScore1 () %> </td> <td><%= fg.getTeam2 () %> </td> <td><%= fg.getScore2 () %> </td> </tr> <% } %> </table> </body></html> creates an Iterator containing FootballGame objects explicit typecast of each object to access the get methods use expressions to insert names and scores for each game in table cells

65 some design issues Java code in the JSP fragmented through the HTML
difficult to trace errors brackets parameter declarations incorrect program logic web designer could unwittingly break the code

66 revised system architecture
Match Report.jsp No Result.jsp football.html Database FootballSearchBean web.xml preprcessing servelet FootballGame hyperlinks now go to a pre-processing servelet DBInfo tomcat

67 web.xml <web-app> <servelet>
<servelet-name>FootballServelet</servelet-name> <servelet-class>PreprocessServelet</servelet-class> </servelet> <servelet-mapping> <url-pattern>/FootballInfo</url-pattern> </servelet-mapping> </web-app>

68 PreprocessServelet // import all the usual servelet stuff
import football.*; public class preprocessServelet extends HttpServelet { private static final String allstr = “no results available yet”; drawstr = “there have been no drawn games”; homestr = “there have been no home wins”; awaystr = “there have been no away wins”; private static final String jspFailPage = “NoResult.jsp”; private static final String jspReportPage = “MatchReport.jsp”;

69 PreprocessServelet public void doGet () {HttpServeletRequest req, HttpServeletresponse res) throws ServeletException, IOException { String search = req.getParameter (“searchType”); FootballSearchBean fsb = new FootballSearchBean (); fsb.setSearchType (search); fsb.doSearch (); if (fsb.numGames () == 0) { doSearchFail (search, req, res); else doSuccess (fsb, req, res); }

70 PreprocessServelet private void doSearchFail (String search, HttpServeletRequest req, HttpServeletresponse res) throws ServeletException, IOException { String reason = allstr; if (“drawn”.equals (search)) reason = drawstr; // add similar clauses for other possible reasons req.setAttribute (“Message”, reason); RequestDispatcher d = req.getRequestDispatcher (jspFailPage); d.forward (req, res); }

71 PreprocessServelet private void doSuccess (FootballSearchBean fsb, HttpServeletRequest req, HttpServeletresponse res) throws ServeletException, IOException { req.setAttribute (“theLeague”, fsb); RequestDispatcher d = req.getRequestDispatcher (jspReportPage); d.forward (req, res); } // end of PreprocessServelet

72 revised JSP pages // NoResult.jsp
<!-- contains the following minimal content --> <jsp:useBean scope=“request” id=“Message” class=“String”> <%= Message %> ********************************************************** //MatchReport.jsp <jsp:useBean scope=“request” id=“theLeague” class=“football.FootballSearchBean”> ... <% Iterator it = (); while (it.hasNext ()) { FootballGame fg = (FootballGame) (); %> <tr><td><%= fg.getTeam1 () %> </td> <!-- etc. -->

73 revised architecture much improved iterator code still exposed
separation of most of the code from the web designer iterator code still exposed replace by custom tags from Apache Struts library <logic:iterate id=“fg” collection=“<%= >” > <td><bean:write name = “fg” property = “team1” /> ... <!-- HTML and JSP actions to write other cells --> </logic:iterate>

74 Timetable change From w/c 23/11/09 No Monday Lecture
Two lectures moved into one slot: Wednesday 11-1 B39 Labs will still be Thursday, 9-11

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