Presentation on theme: "Simon Gooder (Ports Liaison Manager) Navigation Safety Branch Maritime and Coastguard Agency."— Presentation transcript:
Simon Gooder (Ports Liaison Manager) Navigation Safety Branch Maritime and Coastguard Agency
Wind Farms : Ship Routes A possible template &thoughts
Wind Farms : Ship Routes Fundamentals: Shipping uses the shortest routes commensurate with safety. The safety drivers are: depth (in relation to draught) encounters (with ships or hazards + speed & traffic density influences) weather
Wind Farms : Ship Routes Moving forward: Interactive boundaries produce decision thresholds. Interactive boundaries produce decision thresholds. Reasonable criteria – evidence based Reasonable criteria – evidence based Risk management orientated Risk management orientated Template to evolve & mature Template to evolve & mature Basis for planning Basis for planning
Wind Farms : Ship Routes Terms (1): X Band radar - 3cm, 9410 +/- 30 MHz Fitted to most, (just about all), sea going vessels – from yachts upwards. Closer to sea surface, good range, good bearing & range discrimination, good penetration thru precipitation = clarity S Band radar – 10cm, 3050 +/- 30 MHz Additionally fitted to large ships (bigger antenna required), greater range than X band, better penetration thru precipitation, less clutter, better detection for ARPA but less definition. More expensive.
Wind Farms : Ship Routes Terms (2) ARPA = Automated Radar Plotting Aid, (automatic tracking of radar contacts, giving their course, speed and closest point of approach). COLREGS =The International Regulations for Prevention of Collision at Sea
Wind Farms : Ship Routes Terms (4) Domains The surrounding effective waters which the navigator of a ship wants to keep clear of other ships or fixed objects Dr E M Goodwin (1975) A statistical study of ship domains Journal of Navigation Vol 28
Wind Farms : Ship Routes IntimateX 16 – 18 inches (40 – 45 cm) Private 1½ - 4 ft (45 cm – 1.3m) Social 4 – 12 ft (1.3 – 3.6m) Public >12 ft (>3.6m) Personal Space (or personal domains) Domain sizes based on North Americans
Wind Farms : Ship Routes 8L 3.2 L Heading 0.85nm 0.7nm 0.45nm Ship Domains Open Sea Japanese
ALARPALARP Distance From Factors Likely process Individual WIND FARM (Turbine) Boundary 700m inter-turbine spacing = small craft only recommended NO GO if turbines this close to recognised shipping route 500m X band radar Interference intense IMO/UNCLOS Safety Zone 800m Vessels generate multiple echoes on shore based radars VERY CLOSE & CRITICAL SCRUTINY Mitigation needed ½nm (926m) Mariners high traffic density domain 0.8nm (1481m) Mariners ship domain 1 nm (1852m) Minimum distance to parallel boundary of TSS 1½nm (2778m) S band radar interference commences S band radar interference commences ARPA affected 2 nm (3704m) Compliance with COLREGS becomes less challenging CLOSE SCRUTINY butBECOMINGTOLERABLE >2nm But not near TSS TOLERABLE 5nm (9260m) Adjacent wind farm introduces cumulative effect Distance from TSS entry/exit VERY CLOSE & CRITICAL SCRUTINY 10nm (18520m) No other windfarms TOLERABLE NB: Larger, High Speed, Hazmat & Pax vessels hav larger domains
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