2 The elements which make up carbohydrates are: Carbon (C)Hydrogen (H)Oxygen (O)
3 Monosaccharides -Single Sugar- Monosaccharides are: Sweet tasting Soluble in waterReducing sugarsThese are the basic building blocks of other carbohydrates of which arethe reducing sugars:GlucoseFructoseThe Formula for glucose isC6 H12 O6
4 Disaccharides -Double Sugars- May be non-reducing Sweet tasting Water solubleDisaccharides are formed by CONDENSATION REACTION of 2 Monosaccharides, the bond is called a glycosidic bond.SucroseMaltose
5 Condensation Reactions The chemical reaction that links monosaccharides together toproduce polymers (disaccharides etc) is called aCONDENSATION REACTION.Examples include:2 glucose molecules to form maltoseA glucose and a fructose to form sucrose
6 2 Glucose to form Maltose +HydrolysisCondensationH2O
7 A Glucose and a Fructose to form Sucrose +CondensationH2OHydrolysis
8 Summary So… CLASSIFICATION: The basic sugar unit = the saccharide 1 sugar unit = Monosaccaride2 sugar units = DisaccharideExamples of Monosaccharides: Glucose, FructoseExamples of Disaccharides: Maltose, SucroseThese are formed by CONDENSATION REACTIONSTo reverse the reaction it is called HYDROLYSIS
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