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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference Benjamin Franklin & CFD; introduction Fluids played a large part in the life of Benjamin Franklin. As a boy, he wanted to be a sailor; but his father was a Tallow Chandler; so he had to melt tallow and pour it into moulds to make candles. Later apprenticed to his printer brother, he adopted printers ink as his career fluid. He was a good swimmer; and when he absconded to Philadelphia, he travelled by water, spending much time immersed in it. And when he arrived it was raining! In his middle age he became affluent enough to indulge his inventive talents; then it was with gases that he was concerned, especially in lamps and stoves. In this lecture I speculate about how he might be exploiting CFD, were he alive today.

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference Benjamin Franklin & CFD; introduction In 1774, Benjamin Franklin sailed for England on a ship which its captain had claimed to be swift. But it proved not to be. So all passengers were called on deck and ordered, with the crew, to huddle in the stern. Then the ship mended her pace; from which it was concluded that the cargo had been badly distributed. Franklin remarked on the lack of coordination between the hull designers, the sail and rigging makers, those who distribute the cargo, and the sailors who trim the sails; and added: I think that a set of experiments might be instituted, to determine the proper form of the hull..... The Properest Place for the Mast... Form & Quantity of Sail... and so on. Indeed he was sure that some ingenious philosopher will undertake it; -- to whom I wish Success. Had CFD existed then, he might well himself have been that philosopher.

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference CFD and sailing CFD has indeed made contributions to sailing-ship design; and my colleague Gordon Mallinson can claim some credit for New Zealands sailing successes of the late 1990s. Most CFD specialists will regard such studies as commonplace; but my next example concerns something less well-known: the dead- water effect which puzzled such explorers as Fridtjof Nansen. The sail in a physical wind-tunnel The sail in a virtual wind-tunnel

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference CFD and the dead-water effect Dead water dödvand: Norwegian mariners term sudden, severe slow-down of a ship as though an anchor has been dropped or the ship has grounded. Turbid edge Glassy surface The surface has a glassy look surrounded by turbid edges; is sometimes accompanied by a prolonged hissing sound which follows the ship over a wide area; and the ship becomes hard to steer.

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference Nansen FRAM Ekman (1904) provided the explanation; the presence of density stratification causes the ship to generate energy- consuming gravity waves. Ekman Nansens observations, 1893-1896 North-Polar expedition with the FRAM:..moving at 5 knots, when the speed suddenly dropped to 1 knot and stayed that way. We swept the whole sea along with us… The moment the engine stopped, it seemed as if the ship was sucked back. CFD and the dead-water effect

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference CFD and the dead-water effect; the Maas-Hornby investigation The dead-water effect has been simulated in small-scale laboratory experiments by Dr LRM Maas of the Netherlands Sea Research Institute, and in 3D transient CFD calculations by Dr Bob Hornby in the UK. wall Model ship Gravity waves at density-discontinuity The agreement between experiments and calculations was excellent, as of course it should be; for turbulence played no significant role. I think that Benjamin Franklin would have admired this investigation; for it possesses what he called a certain charming quality…. SIMPLICITY.

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference Combustion, turbulence and CFD; Benjamin Franklns contributions One of Benjamin Franklins many interests was combustion, both scientific and practical. He corresponded with Joseph Priestley, the English discoverer of oxygen (the Swede Scheele did so earlier); and he watched Antoine Lavoisier demonstrate charcoal burning in de-phlogisticated air. On the practical side, he invented an improved oil- burning lamp; for he had seen that the earlier globe- shaped lamp allowed too little air to enter and so became quickly blackened by smoke. His lanterns plane-glass sides facilitated air entry; and so remained clean. The flows of air, heat and combustion products, were his main concerns when he urged replacing open fire-places, which lost much heat to the outside wall, by a stove in the centre of the room. I follow Franklin by bringing combustion into the centre of the CFD stage; for it can teach us much.

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference Combustion, turbulence and CFD; the population analogy Let us now ask ourselves what Benjamin Franklin would notice about turbulent flames if he came back to advise us. I suggest that he would be struck by their obvious intermittency. At any one location, there may be sometimes pure air, sometimes pure fuel, and most of the time fragments of gas with intermediate fuel-air ratio and degree of reaction. There are two reasons why CFD specialists should pay attention to chemically-reacting flows: 1. without them there would be no engines, furnaces or chemical plant to generate the chemically-inert flows to which attention is paid; and 2. their study provides unique insight into turbulence which affects all flows. Remembering how savages and colonists so often changed places, he might have used the population analogy to describe flames.

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference The Population Analogy

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference Combustion, turbulence and CFD; the population analogy (continued) I therefore imagine that he might have devised a two-dimensional diagram so as to represent instructively the population of gas states, members of which might be found in a combustion chamber. Benjamin Franklin was a methodical man, and he liked to express his ideas graphically. I.On the right, for example, is how he recorded each of his lapses from the strict moral standards which he required of himself. [T=Temperance; S=Silence; O=Order; etc] It could have taken the triangular form on the left, with vertices representing pure air, fuel and combustion products, respectively, with all possible gas states, i.e. population members, between them.

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference Combustion, turbulence and CFD; the population analogy (continued) The diagram can also be used to: to show how population properties depend on the co-ordinates; and to describe and explain the various hypotheses which scientists have used so as to represent flames, when using the techniques of CFD. He might have called this the TRI-MIX diagram because: I shall illustrate both of these uses in the next slides. products (hot) air fuel (cold) its ordinate is the Temperature RIse which would result from adiabatic combustion; its abscissa is the MIXture fraction of material derived from the fuel stream (i.e. loosely, the fuel-air ratio). On the right it displays the contours of population distribution for a particular location in a flame.

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference Some uses of the TR-MIX diagram; mixture properties Our Returned Benjamin Franklin (RBF from now on) will certainly want to visualize the composition of the gas population in its possible states. Here are the distributions of unburned fuel (left) and free oxygen (right). Red is high, blue low, in all cases. Here is the (adiabatic) gas temperature (right) and the reactedness (left); and finally the concentration of combustion products (right). Of course other properties such as density and viscosity can also be computed and displayed.

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference Some uses of the TRI-MIX diagram; chemical-reaction rates Svante Arrhenius, 100 years after Priestley and Lavoisier, explained why combustion reactions proceed fastest at high temperatures. His findings can also be expressed by way of contours on the TRI-MIX diagram. 1.the main energy-producing oxidation of the fuel, which is what we desire to promote; There are three kinds of reaction, of which the rate-contours are shown below (red is high rate; blue is low rate): 2. the undesired reaction producing oxides of nitrogen; and 3. the almost equally undesired smoke-creating reaction (although light emanating from Franklins oil lamp does need the presence of some carbon particles).

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference Some uses of the TRIMIX diagram; combustor-design strategy Once he had completed his diagram, RBF, being still a sailor at heart, would have immediately conceived the optimum combustor-design strategy in the form of a voyage. The good ships Primary Air and Fuel rendezvous in cool waters. They then proceed in convoy towards and beyond the fastest- oxidation region, avoiding Scylla- NOX to larboard and Charybdis- Smoke to starboard. Then, their crews being totally intermingled, they set first a southerly and then, having met Secondary Air, westerly course, arriving at their Out port with minimum pollution.

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference Some uses of the TRI-MIX diagram; Franklins ideal gas-turbine combustor This is how his ideal design for a gas-turbine combustor might have looked, with three distinct parts: The final dilution must be very rapid so as to minimise NOX. 1 2 3

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference the fuel and primary air mix and burn in the upstream part of the chamber; Some uses of the TRI-MIX diagram; combustor-design strategy Were Benjamin to impart his ideas to designers of gas-turbine combustor, he would be told: Thats just what we do: RBF: Whats CFD? Specialist: Computer simulation. It applies conservation laws of mass, species, momentum and energy to a grid of finite volumes in space and time. Then it solves the equations so generated by trial-and-error. downstream, the secondary air enters so as to lower the temperature to that which the turbine blades can stand. RBF: Hmmm! But how do you optimize sizes and positions of holes? Specialist: We use CFD for that.

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference Some uses of the TRI-MIX diagram; what CFD does and doesnt do Benjamin would have understood instantly that: CFD requires only the skills of the storekeeper, to count: what comes into each volume, what goes out, and what is created or destroyed there; RBF: So I suppose you do the same thing for the gas-population distribution? (expecting to be shown some such grid as that on the right.) Specialist: Whats a gas population? for he sold newspapers in his shop; and he studied Cockers Arithmetick with great Ease. Moreover Trial-and-Error was a way of life for colonists of a new territory. Product Air Fuel

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference Some uses of the TRI-MIX diagram; what CFD does and doesnt do Specialist (puzzled): I never heard of that. We just use Ansys like everyone else. RBF: But what about turbulent fluctuations of temperature and fuel/air ratio? RBF: But if you calculated what proportion of time the local gas state was in each cell of the TRI-MIX diagram, could you not make better estimates of the rates of combustion; and of NOX; and of smoke? RBF (surprised): The Temperature RIse and MIXture fraction dimensions. Are they not discretized as well? Specialist: I quess we take the time-average temperature; and fuel-air ratio as well. Specialist: Yes; I suppose so; but how? Hot Cold Air- rich Fuel-rich

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference Some uses of the TRI-MIX diagram; a Socratic dialogue When he was young, Benjamin Franklin consciously copied Socrates; so, by artful questioning, RBF might have led our how-asking specialist finally to understand and admit that: There is no essential difference between distributions in geometric space and in population space. Sometimes (e.g. in well-stirred regions), non-uniformities in population space are much more important than those in geometric space. To use, say, a million geometric-space sub-divisions but a single population one perhaps (mild-spoken Franklin might say) lacks balance. How many sub-divisions to use in each space is best decided by trying several and observing the difference in the results. The same techniques (discretization, balance equations, trial-and-error solution) can be therefore be used for both spaces. Provided CFDs current over-simplification is not replaced by needless over-complication, computation-time expense will increase but modestly.

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference Geometric and population grids compared Brow-beaten by Socratic questioning, our specialist has assented to RBFs propositions. My audience however may require more time; and indeed motivation. I address first those interested only in velocity and its fluctuations, e.g. in a boundary layer on a curved wall. These fluctuations can be described by a one-dimensional population, with w as the independent variable. Its distribution, calculated as will be explained, shows how centrifugal force filters larger-w elements outwards; so swirling flows are simulated realistically. Likewise gustiness, which affects both human comfort and wind- turbine safety, can be expressed via the w-population distribution. 2D populations of hydrodynamic interest have temperature and salinity as independent variables. They are needed for simulation of dead-water- like gravity waves when thermal and saltiness stratification co-exist. Now, back to combustion.

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference Geometric and population grids: 3D plus 2D = 5D (but its not that bad) For each cell in the 3D geometric grid covering the combustor (shown 2D here), there corresponds one set of cells in the 2D population grid. So the problem might be thought of as five-dimensional. That term is too alarmist; all that has happened is that the 3D problem has acquired some additional dependent variables, equal in number to the cells in one 2D population grid, typically between 10 and 100. Thus, without the population dimension, the dependent variables might have been p, u, v, w, ke, eps, f, T; and with it they become been p, u, v, w, ke, eps, f1, f2, f3,...... f20, say, without immense computer-time increase.

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference Geometric and population grids: physical and chemical processes involved Neighbouring cells of the geometric grid influence each other by way of: laminar and turbulent diffusion and convection; pressure gradient and body forces are also active. Differential convection (filtration, see later) can also play its part.. Neighbouring cells of the population grid influence each other by chemical transformation (similar to convection) and engulfment (without geometric counterpart) to be described below. Each element of the population can also, if desired, have its own additional variables (e.g. NOX concentration); but dont over-complicate!

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference Interactions between members of the population at one cell in the 3D grid The mass-balance equation for one element of the population contains the usual convection and diffusion terms involving its 3D neighbours, and also: intermingling of remote population members creating offspring along a diagonal. At what rate? In proportion to local shear, (already used by the Eddy Break-Up Model; see later), with one empirical constant. The intermingling process involved can reasonably be calledengulfment. The next slide explains. the convection-like movement caused by chemical reaction;

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference Interactions between population members; the engulfment hypothesis Countless numerical and experimental studies reveal the prevalence of vortex roll-up in turbulent flows. Their interface becomes stretched; and the thickness of the inter-leaved layers becomes thinner, so that laminar diffusion and heat conduction per unit volume increase enormously. It results, when two recognisably different fluids lie close together, in their engulfing each other, as shown on the right. Underlying turbulent shear may thus cause population-element mingling.

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference A feature of populations only: differential convection or filtering Although it is nearly true that all population elements are convected together, there are exceptions, as Benjamin Franklin will have known. Red Indians can run and ride faster than colonists; and they often attack what the latter flee from. In combustion chambers, pressure gradients cause hotter gas fragments to accelerate more rapidly than colder ones. In lecture rooms, hot air rises even though the air near the ceiling is already hotter. It is a kind of filtering of one fluid through another. In flow along a curved wall, faster-moving fluid fragments migrate to the larger radii, slower-moving ones to the smaller. [Swirling flows cannot be understood if this is not allowed for. It is a population-distribution matter]. Mathematical expressions must therefore be devised, and calibrated, to represent the various possible filtering processes such as the above. Similar problems arise in sedimentation, familiar in multi-phase flow.

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference Geometric and population grids; whats new? Does CFD recognise the population dimension, perhaps in other words? Yes; the 1971 eddy-break-up model (EBU) for combustion simulation did so, postulating a two-member population: viz. burned and unburned. The rate of inter-mingling was precisely the engulfment rate. The EBU model is still in (indirect) use; so the engulfment-rate concept has, with empirical constant, been (tacitly) accepted. It solved the Scurlock puzzle,viz. why did the turbulent- flame angle vary little with: inlet velocity, fuel-air ratio, temperature, etc.? The EBU is represented on TRI-MIX by red squares and joining line. Engulfment products burn at once.

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference Geometric and population grids; Other tentative steps into population space Variants of EBU, namely: eddy-dissipation concept, presumed-pdf, flamelet) have adherents; A 1982 two-fluid model of transition to detonation has shown how hotter population elements (right) are accelerated faster than colder elements (left). but none have recognised the need to calculate the distribution throughout TRI-MIX space.

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference Geometric and population grids; More serious steps into population space Popes pdf-transport model employs a Monte-Carlo method to populate a (usually) 1D representation of possible gas-mixture states in a combustor by particles having different composition. It is rarely used by designers, perhaps because of computational expense. The authors multi-fluid model corresponds quite closely to RBFs Ideas; but, being devised before the TRI-MIX diagram was invented, its results-display methods (see left) may have hindered acceptance. Nevertheless, the triangular region of occupancy is discernible in the image on the left.

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference More about the multi-fluid model (MFM): origin, name and applications The (perhaps ill-chosen) name, multi-fluid, means only that each member of the population is called a fluid, for want of a better word. Each such fluid is a figment of imagination, no more real than the cells into which the CFD specialist divides geometric space. MFM was born in 1995, so as to extend the 2-member-population EBU to a 4-member one. This was used for oil-platform explosions; but soon generalised. Although arising from combustion studies, MFM has more general utility. I conclude therefore by showing two non-combustion applications, both involving one-dimensional populations. They concern: A stirred chemical reactor; and flow in a curved duct.

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference Application of MFM to a stirred chemical reactor Here is an old CFD-benchmark problem: 3D, transient with a rotating central paddle. We consider the mixing and rapid reaction of acid, in the bottom half, with alkali in the top half. The geometric grid is shown below. Two cases are considered, 1. neglecting and 2. considering population effects. For case 2, the acid~alkali range is divided into eleven equal parts Case 1 is what most designers use today; but it is too optimistic.

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference Application of MFM to a stirred chemical reactor: conclusion 3D contour diagrams of product concentration after 10 paddle revolutions are shown for cases 1 and 2. The general patterns differ little but their quantitative scales do: namely from 3.2 to 2.4. So neglecting fluctuations over-estimates reactor performance. The explanation lies in the following calculated mixture-ratio histograms, corresponding to a single: instant of time, vertical height and circumferential angle, at six different radial locations. Product concentration is high only for the middle mixture ratios.

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference The computations, of which a few results will be displayed, employed only standard features of PHOENICS. 1. The general-purpose CFD code used was PHOENICS. Extract from a Moscow-2008 lecture on swirl-flow simulation illustrating filtering 2. A steady, rotating, turbulent flow between two cylinders was set up in aswitch-on manner. 3. The 17-fluid model of Zhubrin and Pavistkiy was selected. 4. Turbulent-diffusion/engulfment-rate ratios were chosen, based on experimental data for channel flow. 5. A body force proportional to fluid velocity was postulated (velocity-squared might have been more realistic). 6. A new slip-velocity-proportional-to-body-force-difference filtering hypothesis was formulated. This was based on drift-flux and algebraic-slip concepts already long used in two-phase-flow simulations.

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference Extract from a Moscow-2008 lecture: swirl-flow simulation, illustratingfiltering: fluid-concentration contours Next, contours for the 9 th fluid with velocity equal to the mean wall velocity. They spread as a consequence of turbulent diffusion opposed by population-member mingling. Downstream cessation of spread implies that the two processes are in balance. Here are contours of the lowest-velocity fluid. Its concentrations are high near the low-velocity wall, Its spread also ceases downstream. Diagrams for all 17 fluids have been computed; but to display them all would be tedious. First: zero curvature, i.e. no swirl.; contours of computed mass fractions of individual population components. Flow is from left to right. First, the highest-velocity fluid, which is clearly concentrated near the upper, higher-velocity wall.

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference Extract from a Moscow-2008 lecture: swirl-flow simulation; the effect of filtering on velocity FDPs Here is the corresponding FPD for average velocity increasing with radius; the distribution becomes narrower. The fluid-9 mass fraction has risen to 0.21. Faster fluids filter towards the faster-moving outer wall; and the shear stress decreases. Now the direction of curvature is reversed. Faster-moving fluids now filter away from the faster-moving inner wall. The shape of the FPD broadens dramatically. Fluid-9 mass fraction has fallen to 0.081; and the shear stress increases. These results explain why flows near convex and concave walls are so different. Only population models can begin to simulate swirling- flow behaviour. Should they not be investigated? FPDs The fluid-population distributions (FPDs) have also been computed. Here is that for the central plane, when the duct is not curved. Fluid-9 has the highest mass fraction, viz 0.187. Results for curved ducts will now be shown.

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference Concluding remarks: 1. What may be deduced from the examples just shown To those for whom the population-grid idea was new, three rejection-prompting thoughts will surely have occurred, viz. 1. It concerns combustion, a special subject of little general interest. The examples have therefore been chosen to show: 1. That non-combustion phenomena involving the flow of air (swirl, gusts), which elude conventional turbulence models, positively necessitate population-type analysis. What is however not claimed is that anything more than pioneer settlements have been planted in the new territory. Hordes of industrious new immigrants are needed to exploit it. 2. Its ramifications appear vast and indefinite, requiring immense resources of computer- and man-power for its exploitation. 3. To the familiar menagerie of convection, diffusion and time- dependence, there have been added new animals called engulfment and filtering, which may not get along with the others at all. 2. That no vast resources are required. A few individuals with lap-top computers and modest mathematical skills have already done much. 3. The engulfment and filtering concepts have been in use for decades.

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference Concluding remarks 2. About the population aspects of CFD I hope to have convinced you that RBFs immediate recognition of the analogy between geometric and population distribution was correct. The question I now pose is therefore: why should we not give the latter as much attention as the former, at least for chemically-reacting flows? MFM as described here rides on the back of k-epsilon for hydrodynamics; but a stand-alone MFM might be created using, say,shear-rate and eddy-size as population-defining attributes. And not for them only; for pure-hydrodynamics problems have their (1D- or 2D-) population aspects which required investigation? I have also argued that understandable apprehensions concerning its difficulty of implementation are groundless. We can choose the population-defining attributes (replacing the above TRI, MIX, w, acid/salt ratio and salinity,) to suit our purposes.Particle size would be important in volcanic-ash-and-aircraft simulations. The general conclusion is: we still have as much intellectual territory to explore as Franklins contemporaries had geographical.

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April 2010 Philadelphia CFD Conference Concluding remarks 3. A final question But perhaps I have not convinced; and, if that is the case, I sincerely ask: How did I not? Truly wanting to know. For it would not be the first time. Was the argument not clear? Or is the population concept hard to grasp? Benjamin Franklin wrote about his own experiences as a persuader: The objections & reluctances I met with... made me soon feel the Impropriety of presenting ones self as the Proposer of any useful Project.... I therefore put myself as much as possible out of sight and stated it as a Scheme of a Number of Friends..... In this way my affair went on very smoothly, and..... I can heartily recommend it. Henceforth I shall follow his advice. That is why I presented the population-geometry analogy as being his idea rather than mine. For this kind service, and for your attention, I offer my sincere thanks. So let it remain in your memories; and when you talk about it to others, please be my Friends. Then this idea also may spread more smoothly. Or was there something else?

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