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Granitic Site in the Czech Republic and Paired-Catchments Possibilities Pavel Kram, Jakub Hruska, Tomas Navratil, Filip Oulehle, Daniela Fottova and Martin.

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Presentation on theme: "Granitic Site in the Czech Republic and Paired-Catchments Possibilities Pavel Kram, Jakub Hruska, Tomas Navratil, Filip Oulehle, Daniela Fottova and Martin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Granitic Site in the Czech Republic and Paired-Catchments Possibilities Pavel Kram, Jakub Hruska, Tomas Navratil, Filip Oulehle, Daniela Fottova and Martin Novak Czech Geological Survey, Prague

2 GEOMON Network of Fourteen Forest Catchments in Central Europe (Coordinated by Daniela Fottova, Czech Geological Survey, Prague, since 1994) GER POL SVK AUT GER CZE

3 Lysina Hydrochemical monitoring: since 1988 Hydrologic monitoring: since 1989 In the GEOMON network (Daniela Fottová et al.): since 1994 In the ICP-IM network (Sirpa Kleemola et al.): since 2002 Topographic situation 1989 ROAD

4 Different stages of surface runoff and water color at 90 O V-notch weir of LYS DOC, H + Baseflow Flood

5 Throughfall Collectors in Even-Aged Norway Spruce P lantation at LYS Photo: Galina Koptsik, 2005

6 Shallow Root System at LYS photo Hofmeister 2003, published Hofmeister et al. 2008

7 0.5 m 2 Soil Pit at LYS – Podzol on Leucogranite Photo: Skorepa J (2006) Technique: Huntington TG, Ryan DF, Hamburg SP (1988) SSSAJ 52:

8 MAGIC Model Simulation of Annual Mean Base Saturation of Lumped 90 cm of Soil at Lysina Hruska and Kram (2007)

9 SAFE Model Simulation of Annual Mean Base Saturation of Five Soil Horizons at Lysina L+F H E B C Navratil et al. (2007)

10 POL SVK AUT GER CZE.

11 Lithology Gradient in the Czech GEOMON Network and in the American Critical Zone Exploration Network LYS:Leucogranite vs. PLB:Ultramafic Serpentine GEOMON in paired catchment-level observatories Granite vs. Mafic Basalt Brantley et al. 2006, 2008

12 Leucogranite versus serpentine (Lysina vs. Pluhuv Bor) Mg Acid rock Ultramafic rock Sandy soil Silty soil

13 Bedrock composition (mass %) CaO MgO Na 2 O K 2 O Al 2 O 3 SiO 2 Pluhuv Bor-serpentinite Lysina-leucogranite original data: serpentinite: Kram et al., 2007, leucogranite: Fiala F. et al., 1961

14 Soil Base saturation in 1993 Kram et al. (1997)

15 Mean Acid Neutralizing Capacity of Streamwater ( ) ANC Navratil et al. (2006)

16 Real Life Lysina Pluhuv Bor Kram et al., ueq/l Ni ++ Black Brook

17 Input digital space data: satelite image LANDSAT ETM+ Malenovsky, Kram, Cudlin, 2004 leucogranite 21 mono-rock mineral soil catchmens of the Slavkov Forest underlain by 5 geochemically contrasting environments (leucogranite/granite/gneiss+mica schist/ amphibolite+neovolcanites/serpentine) studied in organic soil catchments studied in

18 Mean concentrations of magnesium in stream waters at 11 catchments on 3 bedrocks leucogranite serpentine amphibolite

19 V-notch weir for continuous measurements of surface water runoff from the Pluhuv Bor watershed

20 Conclusions Quantification of lithologic controls on regolith, mineral soil and organic soil in (2+21) forest catchments (in monolithologic and tree monoculture environment of central Europe) Selected paired monolithologic catchments include end-members of ecosystem sensitivity to acidification Comparison of spatial scales of chemical weathering from laboratory microscale, soil profiles to small catchments

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22 More information about the Czech catchments: Hofmeister J, Oulehle F, Kram P, Hruska J (2008) Loss of nutrients caused by litter raking as compared with an effect of acid deposition. Biogeochemistry 88: Hruska J, Johnson CE, Kram P (1996) The role of organic solutes in the chemistry of acid-impacted bog waters of the western Czech Republic. Water Resources Research 32: Hruska J, Kram P (2003) Modelling of long-term changes of streamwater chemistry in two catchments with contrasting vulnerability to acidification. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 7: Kram P, Hruska J, Wenner BS, Driscoll CT, Johnson CE (1997) The biogeochemistry of basic cations in two forest catchments with contrasting lithology in the Czech Republic. Biogeochemistry 37: Krám P (2006) Chemical composition of runoff from eleven forested and geochemically contrasting catchments underlain by leucogranite, serpentinite and amphibolite (in Czech, English Abstract). Geoscience Research Reports, Czech Geological Survey, Prague, Kram P, Oulehle F, Stedra V, Hruska J, Shanley JB, Minocha R, Traister E (2008) Geoecology of a forest watershed underlain by serpentine in Central Europe. Northeastern Naturalist, in review. Navratil T, Kurz D, Kram P, Hofmeister J, Hruska J (2007) Acidification and recovery of soil at a heavily impacted forest catchment (Lysina, Czech Republic) – SAFE modeling and field results. Ecological Modeling 205: Novak M, Kirchner JW, Fottova D., Prechova E, Jackova I, Kram P, Hruska J (2005) Isotopic evidence for processes of sulfur retention/release in 13 forested catchments spanning a strong pollution gradient (Czech Republic, Central Europe). Global Biogeochemical Cycles 19: Art.No.GB4012, Oulehle F, McDowell WH, Aitkenhead-Peterson JA, Kram P, Hruska J, Navratil T, Buzek F, Fottova D (2008) Long-term trends in stream nitrate concentrations and losses across watersheds undergoing recovery from acidification in the Czech Republic. Ecosystems 11:

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26 MAGIC Model Simulation of Annual Mean Streamwater Acid Neutralizing Capacity (ANC) at Lysina Hruska and Kram (2007)

27 MAGIC Model Simulation of Annual Mean Streamwater Sulfate Concentration at LYS and PLB Hruska and Kram (2007)

28 MAGIC Model Simulation of Annual Mean Soil Base Saturation at LYS and PLB PLB: PLB: decline of base saturation from 95% to 88% LYS Hruska and Kram (2007)

29 0.5 m 2 soil pit at PLB – Eutric Inceptisol Photo July 1993 Technique: Huntington TG, Ryan DF, Hamburg SP (1988) SSSAJ 52:

30 Zero-tension lysimeters for sampling of soil water at Pluhuv Bor Photo July 1993

31 metabasics granite leukogranite volcanics gneiss sediments serpentinite mica-schist

32 Mean concentrations of the nutrient potassium and potentially toxic nickel in stream waters at 11 catchments on 3 bedrocks

33 Mean concentrations of the nutrient divalent base cations in stream waters at 11 catchments on 3 bedrocks

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35 Outline u Location of fourteen catchments u Methods of water and soil sampling and chemical analyses u Long-term monitoring results (deposition, soil, streamwater) u MAGIC and SAFE modeling results (streamwater, soil) u Short Conclusions

36 Water Sampling at Lysina (LYS) (for example)

37 Water Analyses at LYS

38 Selected Soil Analyses at LYS (sampling in 1993, analyzed at Syracuse University)

39 Selected Soil Analyses (cont.) at LYS

40 Results of the Mann-Kendall Test * of the Mean Annual Atmospheric Deposition Fluxes to the GEOMON Catchments in CompoundBulk Precipitation: Sen-slope Spruce Throughfall: Sen-slope Precipitation (mm yr -1 ) (-10) (not significant) (-5) (not significant) Sulfur (kg ha -1 yr -1 ) -0.9 p< p<0.001 Inorganic Nitrogen (kg ha -1 yr -1 ) -0.5 p<0.01 (+0.02) (not significant) Hydrogen Ions (kg ha -1 yr -1 ) p< p<0.001 * Libiseller C. (2004) MULTMK/PARTMK – A program for the computation of Multivariate and Partial Mann-Kendall Test. Linkoping University, Sweden. Kram et al. (2006)

41 Mean Streamwater Export of Nitrate in vs. Organic Soil C/N Mass Ratio at fourteen GEOMON Catchments Oulehle et al. (2008)

42 MAGIC Model Simulation of Annual Mean Soil Base Saturation at other GEOMON Catchments Hruska and Kram (2004)

43 Conclusions u CZ = Critical Zone u CZ = Czech Republic

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45 More information about biogeochemical models u MAGIC Cosby BJ, Hornberger GM, Galloway JN, Wright RF (1985): Time scales of catchment acidification. Environmental Science and Technology 19: Cosby BJ, Ferrier RC, Jenkins A, Wright RF (2001): Modelling the effects of acid deposition: refinements, adjustments and inclusion of nitrogen dynamics in the MAGIC model. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 5: u SAFE Warfvinge P, Falkengren-Grerup U, Sverdrup H, Andersen B (1993): Modeling long-term supply in acidified forests stands. Environmental Pollution 80: Martinson L, Alveteg M, Warfvinge P (2003): Parametrization and evaluation of sulfate adsorption in a dynamic soil chemistry model. Environmental Pollution 124:

46 Results of the Mann-Kendall Test of the Mean Annual Stream Runoff Fluxes from the GEOMON Catchments in Catchment Inorganic N: (kg ha -1 yr -1 ) Sen-slope Sulfur: (kg ha -1 yr -1 ) Sen-slope CERNS-1.9 LIZ-0.1NS LKVNS-3.2 LYS-0.1 MOD PLBNS-2.3 POM UHL-0.5NS ANE,JEZ,LES,SAL,SPA,UDLNS NS: not significant, P>0.05 Oulehle et al. (2008)

47 Results of the Mann-Kendall Test of the Mean Annual Streamwater Concentration in the GEOMON Catchments in CatchmentInorganic N: (ueq L -1 yr -1 )Sulfur: (ueq L -1 yr -1 ) Sen-slope ANE CERNS JEZ LIZ-2.1NS LYS MOD PLBNS-37.0 POM SPA UDL UHL NS LES, LKV, SALNS NS: not significant, P>0.05 Oulehle et al. (2008)

48 Mean Calcium and Magnesium Concentration in Streamwater ( ) Ca Mg

49 Very different proportions of Mg fluxes in throughfall at sites with Mg-poor (LYS) and Mg-rich (PLB) substrate in Lysina Pluhuv Bor

50 Decline of internal cycling and dry deposion fluxes of base cations in throughfall in The pattern of internal cycling follows the large increase of throughfall pH. However the wet deposition fluxes remain stable. Dry deposition flux of base cations was larger than the wet deposition flux in the middle of 1990s, but not later. LysinaPluhuv Bor

51 Monthly Mean Water Fluxes

52 Sulfate vs. alkalinity in streamwater, data are split into three time periods Shanley et al., 2004 b baseflow highflow

53 SerpentiniteTremolitic shale Actinolitic shale Amphibolite median mass % median mass % median mass % median mass % Base cations (impotrant nutrients for forest ecosystem): MgO CaO K2OK2O Na 2 O Potentially toxic metals: Ni Cr Al 2 O Kram et al., 2007

54 Real Life H+ Ca++ Na+ H+ Ca++ K+ Na+ Mg++ Lysina Pluhuv Bor Kram et al., ueq/l Ni ++

55 More information about the GEOMON catchments: Fottova D, Skorepova I (1998) Changes in mass element fluxes and their importance for critical loads: GEOMON network, Czech Republic. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 105: Hofmeister J, Oulehle F, Kram P, Hruska J (2008) Loss of nutrients caused by litter raking as compared with an effect of acid deposition. Biogeochemistry 88: Hruska J, Kram P (2003) Modelling of long-term changes of streamwater chemistry in two catchments with contrasting vulnerability to acidification. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 7: Kram P, Hruska J, Wenner BS, Driscoll CT, Johnson CE (1997) The biogeochemistry of basic cations in two forest catchments with contrasting lithology in the Czech Republic. Biogeochemistry 37: Navratil T, Kurz D, Kram P, Hofmeister J, Hruska J (2007) Acidification and recovery of soil at a heavily impacted forest catchment (Lysina, Czech Republic) – SAFE modeling and field results. Ecological Modeling 205: Novak M, Kirchner JW, Fottova D., Prechova E, Jackova I, Kram P, Hruska J (2005) Isotopic evidence for processes of sulfur retention/release in 13 forested catchments spanning a strong pollution gradient (Czech Republic, Central Europe). Global Biogeochemical Cycles 19: Art.No.GB4012, Oulehle F, McDowell WH, Aitkenhead-Peterson JA, Kram P, Hruska J, Navratil T, Buzek F, Fottova D (2008) Long-term trends in stream nitrate concentrations and losses across watersheds undergoing recovery from acidification in the Czech Republic. Ecosystems 11:


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