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Gestational weight gain in a UK cohort: patterns, risk factors and associations with later mother and offspring health Debbie A Lawlor

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Presentation on theme: "Gestational weight gain in a UK cohort: patterns, risk factors and associations with later mother and offspring health Debbie A Lawlor"— Presentation transcript:

1 Gestational weight gain in a UK cohort: patterns, risk factors and associations with later mother and offspring health Debbie A Lawlor

2 Importance Inform policy on the ideal GWG for supporting both short and long-term optimal health in offspring and mother 2009 IOM guidelines; NICE guidelines Should weight be measured in pregnancy? Science Scant evidence of associations of GWG with long term outcomes in both mothers and offspring. Even with short-term outcomes often based on just two measures (with one or both retrospectively reported) Background

3 To examine the associations of pre-pregnancy weight and GWG with long term outcomes in mothers and offspring 1.Determinants of GWG 2.Cardiovascular risk factors in offspring at age 9 3.Asthma in offspring at age BMI, WC and BP in mothers 16 years post-pregnancy 5.Future plans Aims and Objectives

4 Mothers and offspring enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a population-based birth cohort study that recruited 14,541 pregnant women resident in Avon, UK with expected dates of delivery 1 st April 1991 to 31 st December 1992 Gestational weight available for 12,484 mothers; of which 12,449 had a term pregnancy and offspring who survived 1 year. Participants

5 Statistical methods 1.Categorise women according to IOM categories; using pre-pregnancy BMI and highest gestational weight 2.Use all of the available repeat ANC weight measurements Median (IQR): 10 (8, 11) MLwiN - linear spline random effects model with two knots (fractional polynomials to identify position of knots)

6 IOM recommendations ALSPAC Pre- pregnancy BMI Absolute weight gain in kg Mean rate of weight gain in 2nd and 3rd trimesters in kg/week Mean (range) absolute weight gain in kg* Mean rate (SD) of weight gain in 2nd and 3rd trimesters in kg/week Underweight (<18.5kg/m 2 ) (-2.0, 30.5) 0.54 (0.14) Normal weight ( kg/m 2 ) (-2.2, 37.8) 0.53 (0.14) Overweight ( kg/m 2 ) (-3.0, 33.5) 0.49 (0.17) Obese (>=30kg/m 2 ) (-6.9, 30.9) 0.41 (0.20)

7 weeks weeks IOM categories Less than adequate: 35% Adequate: 38% More than adequate: 27% Results: Descriptive

8 DETERMINANTS OF GWG

9 Maternal Education

10 Maternal age

11 Number of previous pregnancies

12 Maternal smoking

13 Genetic variants and GWG Variants known to be robustly associated with greater adiposity Both maternal and fetal variants FTO MC4R TMEM18 GNPDA2

14 Mean difference per additional maternal risk allele adjusted for offspring risk score

15 Association of GWG with offspring CVD risk factors Previous studies showing +ve associations with offspring BMI / fat mass Varied results with BP All used two measurements of weight only (one or both retrospectively reported) None looked at risk factors beyond adiposity & BP Our findings published (Circulation 2010)

16 Offspring of women with higher than IOM recommended GWG were more adipose and had more adverse CVD risk factor levels; those with lower than IOM recommended GWG were less adipose but had similar CVD risk factor levels to those with recommended IOM GWG. Offspring of women with greater GWG up to 28 weeks were more adipose and had more adverse CVD risk factor levels The associations of greater GWG with more adverse offspring CVD risk factor levels were largely mediate by associations with offspring adiposity Association of GWG with offspring CVD risk factors

17 Using IOM categories : OR of childhood asthma (vs. =recommended GWG): < recommended GWG – 1.10 (95%CI: 0.99, 1.26) > Recommended GWG – 1.05 (95%CI: 0.91, 1.22) When adjusting for potential confounders Using spline estimates : Pre-pregnancy (1.00, 1.01) No strong assoc. of GWG in 1 st and 2 nd period with childhood asthma In late pregnancy (1.10, 1.30) With offspring Asthma

18 Associations with maternal outcomes Expectation for positive association with adiposity, but few studies examined this beyond early postnatal period Other CVD outcomes not studied Used opportunistic data from mothers attending 15+ clinic with their offspring SBP, DBP (N ~ 2000) BMI, WC (N = )

19 IOM categories

20 Is pre-pregnancy weight driving associations? i.e. heavier women more likely to exceed recommended weight gain (which is lower for them), and therefore account for the observed association.

21 Pre- pregnancy 0-18 weeks weeks29+ weeks Pre-preg BMI <25kg/m 2 Pre-preg BMI 25kg/m 2 Pre-preg BMI <25kg/m 2 Pre-preg BMI25kg/m 2 BMI (kg/m 2 ) 0.34 (0.32, 0.36) 1.43 (0.97, 1.89) 1.58 (1.07, 2.09) 0.16 (-1.46, 1.78) 0.16 (-0.10, 0.41) 1.33 (0.47, 2.19) WC (cm)0.73 (0.68, 0.78) 3.55 (2.20, 4.90) 4.05 (2.55, 5.56) 1.49 (-3.19, 6.19) (-0.74, 0.73) 2.66 (0.40, 4.91 SBP (mmHg) 0.36 (0.31, 0.42) 0.27 (-1.21, 1.75) 2.29 (0.46, 4.11) (-6.19, 2.21) 0.44 (-0.41, 1.28) DBP (mmHg) 0.17 (0.14, 0.20) (-1.00, 0.85) 1.38 (0.22, 2.53) (-4.82, ) 0.05 (-0.48, 0.57)

22 Conclusions Using repeat measurements of weight suggests a much more complex picture than when IOM categories used Maternal education, age, parity and smoking related to patterns of GWG, but neither maternal nor fetal fat-related genetic variants are. Greater pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG associated with greater offspring and maternal adiposity in later life and via this with adverse lipids, inflammatory markers and blood pressure in offspring May be a U-shaped association with offspring asthma

23 Associations of GWG with: Cognition in offspring at age 4 and educational achievements at age – Suzi Gage, PhD student. Cardiovascular risk factors in offspring at age 15, including fasting insulin and glucose – Sumaiya Patel, Post-doc. Maternal cIMT, DXA determined fat mass, fasting insulin, glucose, and lipids in mothers 17 years post pregnancy – Abi Fraser MRC research fellow Joint modelling of trajectories of BP and GWG during pregnancy – Corrie MacDonald-Wallis, PhD student. GWAS to identify genetic variants associated with GWG that could be used to improve causal inference (through MR). Future plans

24 Papers Fraser A, Tilling K, Macdonald-wallis C, Sattar N, Brion M-J, Benfield L, Ness A, Deanfield J, Hingorani A, Nelson SM, Davey Smith G, Lawlor DA. Association of maternal weight gain in pregnancy with offspring obesity and metabolic and vascular traits in childhood. Circulation 2010;121: Fraser A, Tilling K, Macdonald-Wallis C, Sattar N, Nelson SM, Lawlor DA. Associations of pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain with mothers BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure measured 16 years post-pregnancy: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Submitted to American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2011 in press Lawlor DA, Fraser A, MacDonald-Wallis, Palmer T, Davey Smith G, Tilling K. Maternal and offspring adiposity related genetic variants and gestational weight gain. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2011 in press Fraser A, Tilling K, Henderson J, Grannell R, MacDonald-Wallis C, Lawlor DA. The association of gestational weight gain and offspring asthma. Thorax Submitted February 2011 (under review) Gage S, Lawlor DA, Tilling K, MacDonald-Wallis C, Fraser A. Gestational weight gain and offspring intelligence: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Pediatrics Submitted April 2011

25 Acknowledgements Kate Tilling Abigail Fraser Corrie MacDonald-Wallis US NIH Wellcome Trust MRC British Heart Foundation


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