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Working with Radiation in the University of Bristol Department of Physics.

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Presentation on theme: "Working with Radiation in the University of Bristol Department of Physics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Working with Radiation in the University of Bristol Department of Physics

2 Aim The aim of the session is to introduce you to radiation, the structures in place to keep you safe when working with radiation, and to point you in the right direction if further training is needed.

3 Objectives Remind you that radiation can be a hazard –Introduction to types of radiation –Health effects. Illustrate potential risks involved with handling radioactive sources. Outline the structure for keeping people safe. Hand over to X-ray talk.

4 Early uses of radioactivity Radium and thorium

5 Radiation Injuries 1896 - first injuries due to radiation recorded 1902 - first skin cancers seen 1911 – 94 cases of skin carcinomas and sarcomas reported

6 Radiation Units Activity Number disintegrations per second (Becquerel) Absorbed dose Energy deposited in any medium by any type of ionising radiation (Gray) Dose equivalent Dose allowing for type of radiation and biological damage (Sievert)

7 Equivalent Dose Equivalent dose (H T ) is the absorbed dose in tissue or organ T weighted for the type and quality of radiation R. H T,R = W R D T,R Where D T,R is the absorbed dose averaged over organ or tissue T, due to radiation R W R is the radiation weighting factor

8 Equivalent Dose Radiation TypeWeighting Factor (ICRP 103, 2007) Beta, Gamma, X-ray1 Alpha20 NeutronsBetween 2.5 & 20

9 Old/US Units Rad100 Rads = 1 Gray Rem100 Rem = 1 Sievert Ci1 Curie = 3.7 x 10 10 Bq (dps) 1 mCi = 3.7 x 10 7 ( to avoid confusion, steer clear of CGS units if possible)

10 Dose Limits – For Workers 19342 mSv per day or 730 mSv per year 19372 mSv per day or 10 mSv per week 19503 mSv per week or 150 mSv per year 19561 mSv per week or 50 mSv per year 197750 mSv per year 200020 mSv per year

11 ICRP 60 (Published 1990) Justification – there should be a net benefit Optimisation – restriction of exposure ALARP/ALARA



14 Annual Dose Limits Whole BodyExtremities and skinLens of the eye Employees aged 18 and over 20 mSv500 mSv150 mSv Trainees aged 18 and under 6 mSv150 mSv50 mSv Any other person ( e.g. Undergraduates) 1 mSv50 mSv15 mSv Women of reproductive capacity - exposure of abdomen limited to 13 mSv in any consecutive 3 month period.

15 Properties of Radiation

16 Biological Effects of Ionising Radiation

17 Introduction Health Effects are determined by the type and intensity of the radiation and the period of exposure.

18 Radiation Effects Direct ionisation –Structural cell damage, weakens links between atoms Indirect ionisation –Damage to chemical constituents, e.g. water –Formation of free radicals

19 Radiation effects Stochastic effects – somatic and hereditary effects Deterministic effects – loss of function

20 Stochastic effects Dose Probability Effect, e.g. malignancy and hereditary effects No threshold for an effect to occur, probability increase as dose received increases

21 Deterministic Effects Dose Severity Threshold Effect, e.g. cataracts, fetal damage, skin effects Degree of cells killed increases with dose impairing organ function

22 Deterministic Effects 50 mSv body repairs itself 1 Sv nausea and vomiting 3 Sv Erythema, blistering and ulceration 6 Sv LD 50 depletion white blood cells, 50% population exposed die of infection death 10 Sv severe depletion of cells lining intestine, death due to secondary infections

23 Routes of exposure Inhalation Ingestion Skin dose Extremity dose Abdomen/Foetal Dose Eye dose Injection Whole body dose

24 External Dosimetry (,X & ) Whole body/skin – TLDs, PLDs Eye dose – TLD chips Extremities – Ring badges or TLD chips

25 Environmental Monitoring radiation exposure surface contamination airborne activity

26 Restricting Exposure Alle Ding' sind Gift, und nichts ohn' Gift; allein die Dosis macht, daß ein Ding kein Gift ist. "All things are poison and nothing is without poison, only the dose permits something not to be poisonous." (Paracelsus, 1493 - 1541)

27 Risk Assessment Under the Health and Safety at Work, etc. Act 1974, all work requires a risk assessment. The risk assessment should address the following: nature and source of ionising radiation to be used estimated dose rates to anyone exposed likelihood of contamination arising and being spread results of previous monitoring if relevant control measures and design features requirement to designate areas and personnel planned systems of work estimated levels of airborne or surface contamination likely to be encountered requirement for PPE possible accident situations, potential severity consequences of failure of control measures steps to limit consequences of accident situations

28 Restricting Exposure Radiation – Time, distance and shielding Contamination – make sure sealed sources are in good repair.

29 Calculating Dose Rates Dose Rate = A x E Sv/h where A = activity of source 6r 2 (MBq) E = energy of radation (MeV) r = distance from source (m)

30 Inverse Square Law D 1 R 1 2 = D 2 R 2 2 where R = distance and D = dose

31 Who ya gonna Call? Local Radiation Protection Supervisor (LRPS) –X-Rays: Dr Adrian Barnes –Radioactive Materials: Prof. Denis Henshaw –IAC labs: Dr Keith Hallam Departmental Radiation Protection Supervisor (DRPS) –Dr David Cussans University Radiation Protection Adviser (RPA) –Dr Tony Butterworth

32 University Arrangements To work with ionising radiation you must register via the online database using form RP1. Prior to working with radioactive material you will be required to complete, or be added to, a risk assessment using form RP2. Attached to the RP2 will be your dose calculations and work protocol including risk evaluation. Acquisition of radioactive material is done using form RP3 and will need approval by your DRPS. Stock records are recorded using form RP4 Waste disposals are recorded using form RP5

33 Any questions?

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