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Copy right by the Nophea Kim-Phat Nophea Kim-Phat Graduate School of Applied Informatics, University of Hyogo QUEST Scientific Visitor, Dept. of Earth.

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Presentation on theme: "Copy right by the Nophea Kim-Phat Nophea Kim-Phat Graduate School of Applied Informatics, University of Hyogo QUEST Scientific Visitor, Dept. of Earth."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copy right by the Nophea Kim-Phat Nophea Kim-Phat Graduate School of Applied Informatics, University of Hyogo QUEST Scientific Visitor, Dept. of Earth Sciences, Bristol University Guest Scientist, Center for Ecological Research, Kyoto University

2 Copy right by the Nophea Kim-Phat OBJECTIVE AND METHODOLOGY TO COMPARE TWO MANAGEMENT OPTIONS AND INCENTIVES FOR BETTER USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE TROPICAL FOREST RESOURCES TWO LOGGING PRACTICES ARE COMPARED (CONVENTIONAL AND REDUCED-IMPACT LOGGING)

3 Copy right by the Nophea Kim-Phat TROPICAL NATURAL FORESTS ( about 1720 million ha in 2000 ) Production Forests (47%) Potential Conversion Forest (29%) Protected Forest (24%) Concession(TIMBER) Community Forestry Agroforestry Plantations ConservationOthers MAIN PLAYERS Companies Government Local Communities NGOs Government Local Communities NGOs All ?? This color: Partly or wholly included in CDM Concession This color To be included in post-2012 CDM?? Based on Kim-Phat and Knorr (submitted) Reforestation (?)

4 Copy right by the Nophea Kim-Phat Forests are strongly affected by logging practices CONVENTIONAL LOGGING (CVL) is traditional logging practice involving the uses of heavy machineries, untrained staff, improper plan etc. that result in large damages and disturbances to forest and its ecosystems, but with low cost. REDUCED-IMPACT LOGGING is a new logging practice for the tropics that uses modern technology and well-trained staff. Although operational cost is high, it is capable of reducing various damages. Nophea logs Helicopter CambodiaMalaysia Heli-Logging

5 Copy right by the Nophea Kim-Phat SOME CASE STUDIES: 1 Hinrichs et al., (2002) In East Kalimantan RIL: 19% CVL: 26% RIL CVL Canopy open due to logging Logging and damages

6 Copy right by the Nophea Kim-Phat Table 1 Impacts of RIL and CVL techniques on different forest values: 2 (Sabah, Malaysia) Forest ValuesRILCVL TIMBER Stand structure (>1 cm DBH, Unit: trees ha -1 ) - Before logging (100%) 3,798 ±101 (100%) (100%) 4,382 ±212 (100%) - After logging (79%) 3,001 ±131 (79%) (56%) 2,463 ±212 (56%) Species (density of dipterocarps, Unit: trees ha -1 ) - Before logging (100%) 522 ±69 (100%) (100%) 742 ±100 (100%) - After logging 388 ±46 (74%) (57%) 435 ±49 (57%) Removals (extracted and killed) 797 797 1,920 1,920 Volume extracted (unit: ha -1 ) - Year (0) 9 trees or 106 m 3 13 trees or 136 m 3 - Year (60) 111 m 3 111 m 3 85 m 3 85 m 3 Source: Tay et al., (2002)

7 Copy right by the Nophea Kim-Phat CountryCVLRIL Tree damages (%) Sabah, Malaysia56.029.0 Sarawak, Malaysia54.028.0 East Kalimantan, Indonesia48.430.5 Wood waste (%): cut-offs, top logs, stumps Sarawak, Malaysia20.00.0 East Kalimantan, Indonesia46.226.2 Easter Amazon, Brazil24.08.o Table 2 Some studies on CVL and RIL Source: Costa and Tay (1996), FAO (2001), Sist and Saridan (1998), Sist et al. (2003), Holmes et al. (2002) As published in Kim-Phat et at. (2004)

8 Copy right by the Nophea Kim-Phat IMPLICATIONS CVL Concentrated logging: trees at the accessible areas are harvested Large openness: fragmentation leading to pioneer plant and lianas invasion Soil disturbance: high Growth: likely decrease RIL Smooth logging: trees are felled as planed through the areas Less openness: allowing native species to regenerate Soil disturbance: less Growth: likely increase Work well if harvested tree density less than 8 trees/ha or 50-70 m 3 DBH: 60-100 cm modified from Sist et al. (2003)

9 Copy right by the Nophea Kim-Phat POTENTIAL GLOBAL CARBON SINKS IN MANAGED FORESTS (about -400 TgC year -1 ) Some studies on MAI in the tropics: 0.71 MgC (Phillips et al., 1998 in Science), about 0.2 to 1.5 MgC 0.71 MgC (Phillips et al., 1998 in Science), about 0.2 to 1.5 MgC (Alder and Silva, 2000 in FORECO) Assuming a mean annual increment (MAI) of 0.5 MgC ha -1 year -1, total tropical production forests could sequester about 400 TgC annually. Additionally, there will be more carbon fluxes in harvested wood products

10 Copy right by the Nophea Kim-Phat Taken from Kim-Phat et al. (2004) coupe/block lay-out Pre-harvest inventory Log skidding TOTAL ADDITIONAL COST Malaysia: $4.03 (CVL: )Malaysia: $4.03 (CVL: 7.35, RIL: 11.38) Brazil: $0.08 ()Brazil: $0.08 ( CVL: 5.20, RIL 5.28) Training Pre-harvest and harvest planning: coupe/block lay-out, inventory, tree marking, data processing, road and log stockpile planning, others Harvesting operations: road construction, log stockpile preparation, felling, skidding, others Post-harvest operation: damage assessment, and RIL compliance assessment Per m 3 of harvested wood

11 Copy right by the Nophea Kim-Phat INVESTMENT COSTS FOR IMPROVING FOREST MANAGEMENT AND RESOURCE USE 1.Training: not only for logging, but also for protecting wildlife! 2. Pre-harvest and harvest planning: 3. Harvesting operations: 4. Post-harvest operation 5. Certification 6. Wood processing technology: only 50% or less of harvested logs are being used at present

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13 Proposed Framework for Effective Implementation and Avoiding Leakage Step 1: Government announces the available forests Step 2: Public Bidding and Qualifications Check Step 3: Select good companies (professional, good logging history, sufficient professional staff) Step 4: Agreements, Laws, Policies (forestry and climate), Logging Code of Practice, Certification Step 5: Intervene for access to better markets Step 6: Enforcement mechanisms, verification, punishments, …. Step 7: Incentives (funding mechanism), selling of carbon

14 Copy right by the Nophea Kim-Phat CONCLUDING REMARKS Logging technology does exist for improving forest managementLogging technology does exist for improving forest management Improved forest management through adopting reduced-impact logging is likely to sequester more carbon at low cost, but high carbon price if soldImproved forest management through adopting reduced-impact logging is likely to sequester more carbon at low cost, but high carbon price if sold Main constraints would be the availability of funds, the uncertainty of political commitments, timber prices and future inclusion of forest management into the second Kyoto commitmentMain constraints would be the availability of funds, the uncertainty of political commitments, timber prices and future inclusion of forest management into the second Kyoto commitment

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