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Instant Clinical Pharmacology E.J. Begg

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1 Instant Clinical Pharmacology E.J. Begg
Useful revision guide Instant Clinical Pharmacology E.J. Begg Useful information on individual drugs (although a bit old now) Basic Clinical Pharmacokinetics (2nd Edition) M.E. Winter

2 Drug dosing Important factors concentration of drug in plasma
rate of drug elimination rate of drug absorption

3 Therapeutic window Toxic level Minimum therapeutic level Cp time

4 Revision of pharmacokinetic terms
1st order elimination rate of elimination depends on plasma concentration C = C0e-kt (k= rate constant of elimination) Half life (t1/2) time for plasma concentration to fall by 50% Zero order elimination (pseudo zero order) rate of elimination is constant and independent of plasma concentration Plasma Concn (Cp) zero 1st time

5 Zero order elimination
Half life varies with concentration Plasma Concn (Cp) time

6 Volume of distribution (Vd) Vd = dose C0
Volume of water in which a drug would have to be distributed to give its plasma concentration at time zero. Can be larger than total body volume frusemide 7 litres aspirin 14 litres propranolol 273 litres digitoxin 38 liters 4 ml min-1 digoxin 640 litres 130ml min -1 Plasma clearance (ClP) volume of blood cleared of its drug content in unit time CP= ClM + ClR + ClB + …….

7 Area under the curve (AUC)
Bioavailability (F) measure of the amount of drug absorbed into the general circulation Area under the curve (AUC) obtained from the plasma concentration v time plot gives a measure of the amount of drug absorbed Foral = AUCoral AUCiv iv Clearance = F. dose AUC Cp oral time

8 Same drug, same dose different formulation
different amounts absorbed different peak concentration different AUCs Cp time

9 Therapeutic window Same drug, same route, different doses Toxic level
Minimum therapeutic level Cp time

10 Different rates of absorption (different routes of administration)
Assume the bioavailability is the same (i.e. 1 for all routes) iv sc oral Cp time Slower the rate of absorption time to peak longer amplitude of peak is less longer drug in body

11 Two compartment model tissues plasma elimination e.g. thiopentone
Redistribution + elimination Plasma Concn (Cp) e.g. thiopentone elimination time

12 Intravenous infusion C = Css(1- e-kt) At steady state
rate of infusion = rate of elimination = Css.Clearance Css (plateau) Cp C = Css(1- e-kt) Time to 90 % of Css = 4 t1/2 time

13 Half life hours steady state
Lignocaine hours Valproate hours Digoxin days Digitoxin days

14 Rising phase of the infusion
curve is governed by the rate of elimination Height of plateau is governed by the rate of infusion 2X mg min-1 Cp X mg min-1 time

15 Dosing interval MTL Cp time

16 Multiple dosing At Steady State
amount administered = amount eliminated between doses Cavss Cp Rising phase of the curve is still governed by the rate of elimination time

17 Loading dose(s) Loading dose = Cpeak . Volume of distribution Cp time

18 Tetracycline t1/2 = 8 hours
500mg loading dose followed by 250mg every 8 hours

19 Reducing the dose AND reducing the interval
Cavss = F . Dose Clearance. T T = dosing interval Cavss Reducing the dose AND reducing the interval Cavss remains the same but fluctuation in Cp is less

20 that have a low therapeutic index
Drug plasma concentration monitoring is helpful for drugs that have a low therapeutic index that are not metabolized to active metabolites whose concentration is not predictable from the dose whose concentration relates well to either the therapeutic effect or the toxic effect, and preferably both that are often taken in overdose

21 For which specific drugs is drug concentration monitoring helpful?
The important drugs are: aminoglycoside antibiotics (plasma or serum) ciclosporin (whole blood) digoxin and digitoxin (plasma or serum) lithium (serum) phenytoin (plasma or serum) theophylline (plasma or serum) paracetamol and salicylate (overdose) (plasma or serum). Other drugs are sometimes measured: anticonvulsants other than phenytoin (eg carbamazepine, valproate) tricyclic antidepressants (especially nortriptyline) anti-arrhythmic drugs (eg amiodarone).

22 The uses of monitoring are
to assess adherence to therapy to individualize therapy to diagnose toxicity to guide withdrawal of therapy to determine whether a patient is already taking a drug before starting therapy (eg theophylline in an unconscious patient with asthma) in research (eg to monitor for drug interactions in post-marketing surveillance using population pharmacokinetics).

23 Altered pharmacokinetic profile
liver metabolism Disease Pharmacogenetics (cytochrome P450 polymorphisms) renal impairment Elderly

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