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Thermal Hydraulic Studies for PFBR using PHOENICS U. PARTHA SARATHY Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research Kalpakkam May 3-5 th 2004

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2 U. Partha Sarathy, IGCAR 05/05/2004 PROTOTYPE FAST BREEDER REACTOR (PFBR) Power MWe, 1250 MWth Fuel – Mixture of UO 2 (79 %) and PuO 2 (21 %) Coolant – Sodium (liquid metal) in Pry and Secy Circuits – Water in Tertiary Circuit High Temperatures High Velocities Problems – High temperatures leading to creep, fatigue damage Flow induced vibrations Thermal striping Gas entrainment

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3 U. Partha Sarathy, IGCAR 05/05/2004 PFBR Primary Circuit IHX PUMP CORE Nuclea r heat Hot Pool Cold Pool Grid Plate Inner Vessel

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4 U. Partha Sarathy, IGCAR 05/05/2004 Schematic PFBR Flow Sheet Primary Circuit Secondary Circuit Steam/Water circuit

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HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS OF GRID PLATE- e Page

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6 U. Partha Sarathy, IGCAR 05/05/2004 HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS OF GRID PLATE Consists of 1758 sleeves Receives flow from four pipes Distributes flow to various subassemblies Objectives Flow and pressure distribution Pressure drop in GP Velocity over sleeves

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7 U. Partha Sarathy, IGCAR 05/05/2004 Modelling 2-D model in cylindrical co-ordinates (r- θ) Sleeves modeled through porosity in radial and circumferential directions (Porous body formulation) Inlet as Velocity BC Outlets as mass sinks Pressure drop due to sleeves modeled through Zukauskas correlation Addition of resistance terms in the momentum equation using ground subroutine. K-E Turbulence model HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS OF GRID PLATE Schematic of Grid Plate

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8 U. Partha Sarathy, IGCAR 05/05/2004 Results of Grid Plate Analysis Results Predicted ΔP is 4.6 m of sodium Similar to that extrapolated from 1:3 scale air experiments. Pressure contours are concentric – uniform flow through fuel SA Maximum cross flow velocity is 8.5 m/s Flow Distribution in Grid Plate

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Thermal Analysis of Hot and Cold Pools- Title Page

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10 U. Partha Sarathy, IGCAR 05/05/2004 Thermal Analysis of Hot and Cold Pools Objectives Inner Vessel temperature distribution Stratification In sodium pools Hot pool free surface velocity & temperature CORE

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11 U. Partha Sarathy, IGCAR 05/05/2004 CFD Model and Boundary Conditions Modelling 2-D model in cylindrical co- ordinates (r-z) Core is modeled as a block Porous body approximation for immersed components – IHX, Pump Mass sink at IHX & PUMP inlets Velocity BC at IHX and Core outlets Conjugate thermal hydraulic analysis of hot & cold pools including IV K-E Turbulence model

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12 U. Partha Sarathy, IGCAR 05/05/2004 Flow Distribution in Hot and Cold Pools Good mixing in hot and cold pools

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13 U. Partha Sarathy, IGCAR 05/05/2004 Results T max in IV is 534 O C ΔT across thickness is 64 K Max hot pool free surface temperature is 572 O C Temperature Distribution in Inner Vessel Hot Pool Free Surface Temperature Distribution

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Flow Distribution in SG Inlet Plenum- Title Page

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15 U. Partha Sarathy, IGCAR 05/05/2004 Objective:To identify flow distribution devices and reduce maximum radial velocity over tubes from FIV considerations. Schematic of PFBR SG 3/5 scale model of SG Inlet Plenum

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16 U. Partha Sarathy, IGCAR 05/05/2004 Modelling 3/5 scale model 3-D cylindrical coordinates 180 O symmetric model K-E turbulence model Inlet as velocity BC 3/5 scale model of SG Inlet Plenum

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17 U. Partha Sarathy, IGCAR 05/05/2004 Flow distribution in SG Inlet Plenum – Basic Configuration Flow distribution in Inlet window region at 1430 mm from inlet =0 Radial Velocity Profile along the Window with Basic Configuration

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18 U. Partha Sarathy, IGCAR 05/05/2004 Axial Velocity in the Annulus at 575 mm – Basic Configuration

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19 U. Partha Sarathy, IGCAR 05/05/2004 Porous plate used as a Flow distribution devices 3/5 scale model of SG Inlet plenum with Flow distribution devices Porous body formulation for porous plate and porous shell Porous plate

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20 U. Partha Sarathy, IGCAR 05/05/2004 Axial Velocity in the Annulus at 575 mm from Inlet with Different Porous Plates

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21 U. Partha Sarathy, IGCAR 05/05/2004

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22 U. Partha Sarathy, IGCAR 05/05/2004 Flow distribution in SG Inlet plenum with Flow distribution devices ( = 0 ) Flow distribution in Inlet window region at 1430 mm from inlet 3/5 scale model of SG Inlet plenum with Flow distribution devices

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23 U. Partha Sarathy, IGCAR 05/05/2004

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24 U. Partha Sarathy, IGCAR 05/05/2004 RESULTS Combination of graded porous plate and porous shell render as uniform flow both axially and circumferentially. The distributions of porosity in the plate and shell have been identified. Maximum radial velocity is 0.75 m/s (average is 0.45 m/s) whereas the same is 3 m/s in basic configuration

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Inter-Wrapper flow Studies-Title Page

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26 U. Partha Sarathy, IGCAR 05/05/2004 Inter-Wrapper flow Studies - Steady State Inter Wrapper flow Sub-Assembly Steel hexagonal Wrapper Objectives Effect of IWF on SA clad hotspot Flow distribution in IWS To develop a model for studying various design basis events which will give detailed temperature distribution in hot and cold pools

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27 U. Partha Sarathy, IGCAR 05/05/2004 Sodium Flow in Primary Circuit CORE DHX

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28 U. Partha Sarathy, IGCAR 05/05/2004 Modeling 2-D cylindrical coordinates (r-z) Inlets as velocity BC Outlets as mass sink Porous body formulation for core and other immersed structures Coupling with 1-D model for neutronics, heat transfer calculations in core, IHX, DHX etc. CFD model for IWS and Hot and Cold Pools

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29 U. Partha Sarathy, IGCAR 05/05/2004 Schematic of Fuel SA Schematic of the SA Computational Model

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30 U. Partha Sarathy, IGCAR 05/05/2004 Exchange of Results between 1-D and 2-D PHOENICS Models for Boundary Conditions

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31 U. Partha Sarathy, IGCAR 05/05/2004 Flow Chart for Coupled 1D Code – PHOENICS code Calculations 1-D 2-D

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32 U. Partha Sarathy, IGCAR 05/05/2004 Flow Distribution in Hot and Cold pools Temperature Contours in Hot and Cold pools m/s

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33 U. Partha Sarathy, IGCAR 05/05/2004 Temperature and Velocity Distribution in Inter- Wrapper Space m/s 395 O C

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34 U. Partha Sarathy, IGCAR 05/05/2004 Temperature Distribution in IV Temperature Distribution in MV Results SSA outlet temperature increases by about 2 K Total heat transferred to IWS is 370 kW Axial temperature gradient of hot/cold interface is 150 K/m

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35 U. Partha Sarathy, IGCAR 05/05/2004 Inter-Wrapper flow Studies - Transient Analysis (under progress) Station blackout incident All pumps trip Primary circuit flow coasts down Secondary circuits not available Reactor trips only at 2.5 s Temperature inside SA goes up Good amount of heat is taken away by the IWF

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Results Transient Evolution of Temperatures in Hot and Cold Pools

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