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Sexually coercive adolescents: incidence, risk factors and outcome Cecilia Kjellgren Lic SW, PhD Cand Lund University.

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Presentation on theme: "Sexually coercive adolescents: incidence, risk factors and outcome Cecilia Kjellgren Lic SW, PhD Cand Lund University."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Sexually coercive adolescents: incidence, risk factors and outcome Cecilia Kjellgren Lic SW, PhD Cand Lund University

3 Adolescent sexual offenders Aged 12-17 Aged 12-17 Females and males Females and males –In Sweden - 15 years age of criminal responsibility

4 National incidence of reports to social services year 2000 National incidence of reports to social services year 2000 Kjellgren, Wassberg, Carlberg, Långström & Svedin, 2006 New reports to social services during year 2000 New reports to social services during year 2000 Aged 12-17 Aged 12-17 197 males, 2 females 197 males, 2 females Incidence rate - among males 0.06% Incidence rate - among males 0.06% –number of reported cases year 2000 divided by the male population ages 12-17 Equally frequent reports from big cities and rural areas Equally frequent reports from big cities and rural areas

5 Stockholm Malmö Göteborg 02 -.07 %.07 -.14 %.15 -.26 %.26 -.91 % no reported cases Distribution - incidence rates in Sweden

6 Two subgroups Child offenders Child offenders –more likely grooming behaviour –often social isolation –emotional loneliness –other criminal behaviour unusual Peer offenders Peer offenders –more likely rape –aggression –conduct problems –other criminal behaviour present

7 Child vs peer offenders, Kjellgren, 2006 characteristics Child offender N=91 Peer offender N=105 2 siblings % 37 (42,2) 12 (12,1) *** relatives % 11 (12,6) 2 (2,1) acquaintance % 35 (40,2) 72 (72,7) stranger % 4 (4,6) 13 (13,1) any male victim % 25 (37,3) 12 (13,2) *** >1 offer % 32 (42,0) 12 (15,8) ** offended together w group of peers % 12 (15.4) 57 (67.9) ***

8 Social workers reported experiences of the clinical work with adolescents who sexually offend Difficulties, resistance and experiences of success. Difficulties, resistance and experiences of success. Half of the local authorities in Sweden (n=140) participated. Half of the local authorities in Sweden (n=140) participated. One hundred and eighty social workers sent their comments. One hundred and eighty social workers sent their comments. The comments have been grouped in four sub groups with the themes: The comments have been grouped in four sub groups with the themes: –knowledge and resources –responsibility and cooperation –good practice –to approach of the adolescent sex offender

9 Population based study Population based study - background Representative population-based surveys to complement the knowledge about the etiology of adolescent sexual offending Comparisons only with non-conduct problem subjects will not separate risk / needs factors that are common to various forms of antisocial behavior from those that are specifically associated with sexually coercive behaviour

10 Population based study 4.343 3rd year students upper secondary school (further education) 4.343 3rd year students upper secondary school (further education) Mean age 18.0 years Mean age 18.0 years Identify general and specific risk factors of sexual coercive behaviour Identify general and specific risk factors of sexual coercive behaviour –To identify general risk factors and those specific of sexual coercion, the results were compared with conduct problem youths as well as with normal controls.

11 Methods Subjects were divided into three groups; sexually coercive (SEX) non-sex conduct problem (CP) control adolescents (NC)

12 Definition of study groups Sexually coercive behavior group (SEX) Subject endorsed ever talked someone into, used pressure or forced somebody to masturbate you, to have sexual intercourse, oral sex or anal sex Non-sex conduct problem group (CP) Subject endorsed 3 of ever violent conflict with teacher, ever theft of >85 £ worth, ever burglary, ever stolen car or mc, frequently truant (5 times), ever away from home whole night without parents knowing where

13 Victims of penetrating sexual abuse

14 Sexual preoccupation

15 Acceptance of rape myths Burt, 1980 (range 5-35)

16 Ever porn use

17 Porn use almost daily

18 Results: Correlates Both general criminogenic and sexuality-specific risk factors were related to self-reported sexually coercive behaviour among boys and girls General correlates to conduct-disordered behaviour (including sexually abusive behaviour) in boys were; lower parental socio-economic position, separated parents, non-majority ethnicity, and being in non- theoretical study programmes. For both boys and girls, aggressiveness and risk taking, frequent alcohol consumption, use of cannabis and harder drugs (particularly in girls) were general correlates to conduct-disordered behaviour.

19 Results: Correlates For both boys and girls, risk factors related more specifically to sexually coercive behavior, as compared to non-sex conduct problems, were: being a victim of sexual abuse (boys only), feeling sexual lust almost all the time, using porn almost daily, and endorsing more rape myths. Sexually coercive girls tended to have fewer general correlates to conduct-disordered behavior (e.g. poorer socio-economic position, separated parents, non-majority ethnicity, non-theoretical programmes) than did sexually coercive boys

20 Conclusions study 1 and 2 Approximately 10-15% of sexual offences committed by adolescents are reported to authorities Approximately 10-15% of sexual offences committed by adolescents are reported to authorities 1-3% of reported adolescent sex offenders are girls 1-3% of reported adolescent sex offenders are girls Self reports indicate that girls constitute approximately 20% of the offending population Self reports indicate that girls constitute approximately 20% of the offending population

21 Risk assessment Identify risk and needs of the young person Identify risk and needs of the young person Identify the risks of reoffending behaviour – in the interest of future potential victims Identify the risks of reoffending behaviour – in the interest of future potential victims comprehensive assessment comprehensive assessment –Individual, family, school, peer domains –The narrative of the victim –Sexuality Interview with the adolescent Interview with the adolescent –Knowledge –Interests –Fantasies –Experiences –Sexual abuse

22 Empirically Guided Checklists A systematic review of risk factors that have been identified in the professional literature as being associated with sexual and criminal offending. Practical value of a decision-support system for risk assessment, in comparison to unstructured clinical procedures. – –To improve the reliability and predictive validity of these assessments.

23 Risk prediction challenges for adolescent sex offenders low base rates of recidivism low base rates of recidivism limited number of well-designed studies on recidivism on youth limited number of well-designed studies on recidivism on youth

24 for assessment of adolescent risk of sexual recidivism Faniff & Becker, 2006 Currently two instruments that have data to support the use for assessment of adolescent risk of sexual recidivism Faniff & Becker, 2006 J-SOAP-II J-SOAP-II –(Juveniles Sex Offender Assessment Protocol-II, Prentky & Righthand, 2003) ERASOR ERASOR –(Estimate of Risk of Adolescent Sexual Offense Recidivism, Worling & Curwen, 2001) research on use of risk assessment is promising research on use of risk assessment is promising

25 ERASOR (Estimate of Risk of Adolescent Sexual Offence Recidivism) 25 risk factors that fall into 5 categories, –Sexual interests, attitudes and behaviours –Historical sexual assaults –Psychosocial functioning –Family / environmental functioning –Treatment

26 Risk level occurrence of factors of the adolescent, guide professionals to estimate the level of risk of sexual recidivism occurrence of factors of the adolescent, guide professionals to estimate the level of risk of sexual recidivism –Low –Medium –High

27 Worling & Långström, 2003 Review of factors associated with criminal recidivism in adolescents who have offended sexually. Supported, promising, possible, and unlikely risk factors Worling & Långström, 2003 Supported risk factors Deviant sexual interests (prepubescent children or sexual violence) Prior criminal sanctions for sexual assaults Past sexual offences against two or more victims Selection of a stranger victim in sexual offence Lack of intimate peer relationships / social isolation Incomplete sexual offence-specific treatment

28 Follow-up study Originally a clinical sample of 90 adolescent females and males assessed 1998-2004 Originally a clinical sample of 90 adolescent females and males assessed 1998-2004 4 girls and 86 boys 4 girls and 86 boys Mean age 15 years by assessment (11-19 years) Mean age 15 years by assessment (11-19 years)

29 Follow-up study 4 years after assessment 40 males participate in follow up (mean age at follow up 22,7 years) 40 males participate in follow up (mean age at follow up 22,7 years) –Mean 6 years post assessment Majority of victims < 12 years Majority of victims < 12 years Half of the victims Half of the victims –siblings –or children living in the same foster family as the offending adolescent Majority of abuse, penetration or attempt to penetrate Majority of abuse, penetration or attempt to penetrate

30 Risk estimate for the study group Low risk 22% Low risk 22% Medium risk 35% Medium risk 35% High risk 43% High risk 43% What happened……….? What happened……….?

31 Follow-up study 4 years after assessment Did the risk assessments predict adolescents with increased risk to commit further sex offences/non-sex offences? Did the risk assessments predict adolescents with increased risk to commit further sex offences/non-sex offences? Identify individual risk factors associated with reoffending? Identify individual risk factors associated with reoffending? Social adjustment and life style today? Social adjustment and life style today? Sexual health or sexual deviances today? Sexual health or sexual deviances today? How did they experience disclosure, assessment and intervention? How did they experience disclosure, assessment and intervention?

32 Follow-up study 4 years after assessment interview and psychometric measures interview and psychometric measures –Job / studies –social network –life quality –antisocial behaviour –use of drugs and alcohol –psychiatric health –sexuality –their experience of the social services intervention

33 In progress….. Extensive interventions more likely for adolescents assessed of high risk Extensive interventions more likely for adolescents assessed of high risk –though some high risk adolescents did not get any abuse specific intervention High risk adolescents more likely to reoffend High risk adolescents more likely to reoffend –in particular child offenders Some peer offenders referred to general interventions for anti-social behaviour Some peer offenders referred to general interventions for anti-social behaviour –did not get any abuse specific interventions –reported worrying deviant sexual fantasies / interests

34 PROGNOSIS offence specific treatment offence specific treatment –5 % reoffend sexually within 4 years Worling & Curven, 2000, Adolescent sexual offender recidivism: success of specialized treatmen and implications for risk prediction, Child Abuse and Neglect, 24:7 Worling & Curven, 2000, Adolescent sexual offender recidivism: success of specialized treatmen and implications for risk prediction, Child Abuse and Neglect, 24:7 no specialised treatment no specialised treatment –20-30% reoffend sexually Worling & Långström, 2003, Assessment of Criminal recidivism risk with adolescents who have offended sexually, Trauma, Violence and Abuse, 4:4 Worling & Långström, 2003, Assessment of Criminal recidivism risk with adolescents who have offended sexually, Trauma, Violence and Abuse, 4:4

35 cecilia.kjellgren@med.lu.se


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