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1 Joint DCSF/DIUS Research Conference 2007 Understanding Diversity: Creating Opportunities 16 November 2007 Thomas Spielhofer.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Joint DCSF/DIUS Research Conference 2007 Understanding Diversity: Creating Opportunities 16 November 2007 Thomas Spielhofer."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Joint DCSF/DIUS Research Conference 2007 Understanding Diversity: Creating Opportunities 16 November 2007 Thomas Spielhofer

2 2 Aims of Review expected benefits of compulsory post-16 participation challenges in implementing and enforcing participation in education and training support needed by young people to help them make effective choices.

3 3 Systematic literature review Internet searches International enquiries 100+ documents considered 65 documents reviewed Methods

4 4 Participation of 16 to 18 year olds in education and training, England, 1995 to 2005 Source: DfES (2006) Participation in education, training and employment by year olds in England: 2004 and 2005 (National Statistics First Release SFR 21/2006

5 5 Proportion of 16 to 17 year olds NEET, employed (JWT), and in education and training, England, 1995 to 2005 *Provisional Source: Data compiled using tables from DfES (2007a) showing the numbers of young people participating in education and WBL The figures in this graph do not add up to 100 per cent as they exclude some young people engaged in part-time training in the workplace, in independent colleges or via private study, based on estimates from the Labour Force Survey.

6 6 Characteristics of non participants have achieved no or very low qualifications when leaving school have not enjoyed school have a history of truancy and/or exclusion be white and male come from lower socio- economic backgrounds have parents with low qualifications, aspirations and awareness of post-16 options be in a job without training in the retail sector be motivated by getting a job and earning money as soon as possible Not a homogenous group But they are more likely to:

7 7 JWT or NEET? JWT 79,000 NEET 124,000

8 8 courses leading to level 2 qualifications or below work-based training (in retail?) Likely destinations of non-participants have achieved no or few qualifications have not enjoyed school vocational courses (including the new Diplomas) are motivated by getting a job and earning money as soon as possible most likely to be in a job without training in the retail sector Characteristic of non-participants Given these characteristics a lot of growth can be expected in:

9 9 The potential benefits of participation Higher wagesHealth benefits Increased likelihood of labour market participation Increased life satisfactionBetter educational outcomes Reduced offending behaviour and crime Increased post-compulsory participation Increased likelihood of civil involvement

10 10 The benefits of increased participation – the evidence VoluntaryCompulsory Education Training Access (2005) Applied Economics (2002) DSF (2006) McIntosh (2002) Ashenfelter & Krueger (1993) Del Bono & Galindo-Rueda (2006) Walker (2003) Oreopolous (2002, 2006a,b) Meghir & Palme (2004) Leigh & Ryan (2005) McIntosh (2004, 2006, 2007) Access (2005)

11 11 The financial benefits of post-16 education or training Vocational qualifications do not have the same economic benefits as academic ones There is a significant variation in the returns to apprenticeships between different employment sectors The economic returns to NVQs at Level 2 or below are negligible, except for those who leave school with no qualifications. Compulsory education OR training

12 12 Conclusions No direct evidence of the impact of raising the participation age to 18 Strong evidence that compulsory post-16 schooling has economic benefits Not clear whether the benefits will be the same for compulsory participation in education or training Impact most likely to be greatest for those who leave school with no previous qualifications


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