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1 of 15© Boardworks Ltd 2009
2 of 15© Boardworks Ltd 2009 What is heat transfer? Heat is transferred by three main processes: conduction convection radiation Energy reaching Earth drives global interaction between the atmosphere and the surface creating wind and influencing ocean currents. The Sun is the external source of energy for Earth.
3 of 15© Boardworks Ltd 2009 Conduction, convection and radiation Convection is the transfer of heat energy by the movement of matter. For example, in a saucepan on the stove there is a steady flow between the warm and cool sections of a fluid. This is a convection current. Conduction is the transfer of heat energy by direct contact, or from particle to particle. For example, a spoon in a bowl of soup becomes warmer because the heat from the soup is conducted along the spoon. Radiation is the transfer of heat energy by electromagnetic radiation. For example, energy from the Sun travels to Earth by electromagnetic waves.
4 of 15© Boardworks Ltd 2009 Identifying heat transfer
5 of 15© Boardworks Ltd 2009 Differential heating Radiation from the Sun does not hit Earth everywhere at the same time and in equal amounts. Many factors, such as altitude and latitude, affect the amount of radiation reaching an area. This means that some places receive more heat while others receive less heat. This is known as differential heating.
6 of 15© Boardworks Ltd 2009 Wind currents
7 of 15© Boardworks Ltd 2009 Coriolis effect
8 of 15© Boardworks Ltd 2009 Global wind currents The global pattern of wind currents can be shown by the three cell model of air circulation. This shows: convection cells (formed due to differences in high and low pressure) deflected winds (due to the Coriolis effect) This forms three main wind patterns in each hemisphere. polar easterlies westerlies trade winds westerlies polar easterlies
9 of 15© Boardworks Ltd 2009 Climate zones Wind circulation patterns, along with other factors, contribute to the location of different climate zones. Convection cells at the equator, called Hadley cells, create areas of high and low pressure associated with the trade winds. Low pressure at the equator results in high rainfall – forming Africa’s equatorial rainforests. High pressure areas occur around 30 degrees north and 30 degrees south latitudes. These areas see very low annual rainfall – forming the arid land of the Sahara and Kalahari deserts. equator
10 of 15© Boardworks Ltd 2009 True or false?
11 of 15© Boardworks Ltd 2009 surface currents deep currents Ocean currents Heating of the Earth's surface and atmosphere by the Sun also drives convection within the oceans, producing ocean currents. surface currents – this occurs in the upper part of the ocean. This involves just the top 10% of the water in the ocean. There are two circulation systems in the ocean: deep currents – this occurs below 400 meter depth. 400 m
12 of 15© Boardworks Ltd 2009 Surface circulation
13 of 15© Boardworks Ltd 2009 Ocean water density The density of ocean water varies due to differences in temperature and salinity. The dark blue areas show the regions of higher density.
14 of 15© Boardworks Ltd 2009 Thermohaline circulation Water at the poles is very cold and ice formation causes the water to become salty. This dense water sinks, starting a deep current that moves water throughout the world’s oceans. This is often called the global ocean conveyor belt.
15 of 15© Boardworks Ltd 2009 How much do you know?
1 of 15© Boardworks Ltd of 15© Boardworks Ltd 2009.
Global and Local Winds Chapter 16 Section 3.
Convection, Global Winds, and Jet Stream
Earth’s Climate System Air and Ocean Circulation
Global Wind Patterns and Weather & Weather Basic
Oceans, Currents, and Weather Dynamics
Boardworks Middle School Science Wind and Ocean Currents
Surface Currents and Deep Currents
Atmospheric Pressure and Wind
Wind, Climate, and Ocean Currents Wind, Climate, and Ocean Currents
Atmosphere & Weather All About Winds.
20% of incoming sunlight absorbed by clouds and gases
Winds and Currents in the Oceans
Ocean Circulation Winds and Currents. The __________________ and the ___________________ interact The ocean and atmosphere transport heat from the ______________________________.
Global and Local Winds.
Section 3: Atmospheric Circulation Objectives ◦ Explain the Coriolis effect. ◦ Describe the global patterns of air circulation, and name three global wind.
WHAT MAKES THE WIND BLOW?. Recall the effect of solar radiation.
The Role of Solar Energy in Global Winds and Ocean Currents.
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