2Investigations and Arrest. The modern justice process begins with an investigationAfter a crime has occurred, evidence is collected at the scene when possibleA follow-up investigation tries to reconstruct the sequence of activities. (CSI)Once enough evidence is collected, an arrest can be made
3Miranda vs. ArizonaEven though On Television, cops read suspects their rights at every arrest, however in reality this is not so. A suspect is only read rights before questioning.When a officer observes a crime in progress, for the safety of others, the officer may ask a few question prior to Miranda Warning
4Booking Following arrest, suspects are booked at a police station. Pictures are taken, fingerprints are made, and personal information is gathered.Details of the charges are recorded and an administrative record of the arrest is created.At this time suspects are again advised of their rights and are made to sign a paper saying that they received and understand them.
5First appearanceWithin hours the suspects is brought before a magistrateHere charges are made knowledgeable to him and again his rights are readSome suspects are given the opportunity of bail.Describe bail procedureIf the suspect doesn’t have a lawyer one may be appointed by the court.
6Preliminary Hearing (Preliminary examination) This is to establish if there is sufficient evidence to continue the justice processAt this hearing the judge will seek to determine if there is probable cause to believe that;1. A crime has been committed.2. That the defendant committed the crime.Defense attorneys have a chance to see the degree of evidence the prosecutor has against them.If evidence against them is sufficient, defense attorneys may propose a plea.All defendants have the right to have an attorney present at this hearing
7Information or indictment Some state require an Information with the courtA formal written accusation filed by the prosecution on the basis of the outcome of the preliminary hearingOther states require an IndictmentA decision returned by the Grand juryThe Grand jury hears from the prosecution and makes a decision based on the evidence presentedThe Grand jury decides whether there is enough evidence to permit the case to trialThe Grand jury determines if there is probable cause to charge the defendant with a crimeThe Grand jury can return a verdict on less that a unanimous voteThe defense does not have a chance to present evidence in a Grand jury trial.
8ArraignmentThis is the first appearance of the defendant before a court that has the authority to conduct a trial.The defendant hears the indictment brought against himThe defendant is also made aware of his rights and is ordered to enter a plea.Not guiltyGuiltyNo contest (nolo contendere)This plea cannot be used against the defendant in a civil suit.The judge can over turn a plea of guilty if there is reason to believe the defendant is under duress or does not understand the charges brought against him.The defendant can also stand and remain silent and the judge will enter a plea of not guilty