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Chapter 2 Cells to Systems

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1 Chapter 2 Cells to Systems

2 cell membrane (noun) surrounds a cell, holding the parts of the cell .
The cell membrane can be compared to your skin because both are outside surfaces.

3 nucleus (noun) the part of the cell that contains . .
The nucleus is where the DNA is located.

4 cell wall (noun) surrounds the cell membrane. Only in .
The cell wall gives plant cells extra support and protection.

5 chloroplasts (noun) Use the energy in sunlight to turn water and CO2 into and sugar. Chloroplasts give plants their green color.

6 cytoplasm all the material of the cell between the cell membrane and the Cytoplasm is a jelly-like substance.

7 vacuoles act like a , storing and breaking down material.
In plants, vacuoles may store water.

8 Lesson 1 - What is Inside a Cell?
Cells are the part of your body. They carry out the activities of life building blocks of all living things. Very, very tiny. One drop of blood contains of red blood cells. Cells must take in and get rid of Cells sense and respond to changes in their surroundings. They communicate with each other. All cells need Get energy through cellular respiration.



11 Parts of Cells Most of the things your body does are done inside .
You grow when your grow! Cells have the same needs as your whole body has.

12 Parts All cells have: )Cell membrane the cell )Nucleus - contains )Vacuoles - act like a stomach, stores and breaks down material ) Cytoplasm - the material between cell membrane and nucleus ) Mitochondria - cell's producers, combine oxygen and food to produce energy in cellular respiration.

13 Parts Parts only in plants: ) cell wall - surrounds the cell ) chloroplasts - use energy in sun to turn water and CO2 into O2 and sugar. Give plants their color. Chromosomes are made of materials including the chemical Twisted ladder shape. Chromosomes carry the for the cell - tell the cell how to do its job are made of DNA. Every cell in your body has the same set of thousands of genes. - passing genes from one generation to the next.


15 Review What is the most basic unit of living things?
List five parts of all cells and their jobs. List the two parts that are only in plant cells. What are genes made of? What is the process of passing genes from one generation to the next called?

16 tissue a group of the same kind of cells working together doing the same Muscle cells grouped in bundles make up muscle tissue.

17 organ a grouping of different combined together into one structure.
Your heart, eyes, ears, and stomach are examples of organs.

18 Lesson 2 How do Cells Work Together?
There are different cells throughout the body. Groups of similar cells make up tissues, and groups of tissues make up organs. You have about different kinds of cells. 3 types ) cells - nerve cells, can connect several parts of the body at once ) Flat cells cells, join to overlap and cover a surface. Like shingles on a house ) Round cells blood cells, round with 2 two dimples. Gives extra surface area for picking up O2.


20 Special Cell Structures
Hair-like structures called do different jobs in the body. In the ear the hairs bend when sound waves go over them which results in nerve signals being sent to the In airways of the lungs, there is cilia. They sweep dirt and germs out of the airways.

21 Cells-Tissue-Organs Cells work together most of the time.
Tissue - group of the same kind of cells working together doing the same job. - group of tissues combined together into one structure. Perform a job in the body. Ex. Heart, eye, stomach. Largest organ is your have tissues and organs too!


23 Skin Cell Tissue skin cells - many layers. Top section has layers.
New cells form in the bottom and push other cells out away from the blood. The outside layer is Takes one month for skin cells to get pushed to the surface. Dead cells eventually fall off. Jobs - protects the inside, keeps out germs, prevents too much water loss. Nerve tissue helps you sense touch, , and temp. glands keep skin soft. When cold, muscles pull hair upright, causing Keeps you warm.

24 Review What are cilia and what do they do?
Why are there dimples in red blood cells? What makes up a tissue? What makes up an organ? Is the outside layer of skin dead or alive? Name some jobs of the skin.

25 organ system a group of and that work together to carry out a life process. The digestive system digests your food. Muscular System, Skeletal System, Nervous System, Urinary System, Digestive System, Endocrine System, Respiratory System, Circulatory/Cardiovascular System, Reproductive System, Lymphatic System, Integumentary System

26 Lesson 3 - How do Organs Work Together?
Organs work together in organ systems to carry out life functions. Organ systems work together also. Skeletal system bones. Jobs system, protect internal organs.

27 Muscular System Muscles work together to move your body.
muscles you can control. Brain tells your muscles how to work together. Some work by themselves - ex. when you shiver, heart. It takes several muscles just to smile!!

28 Muscular System (names of major muscles)

29 Skeletal System (major bones)

30 Bones and Muscles Work Together
Many muscles work in to move bones. Muscles only on bones. They never push. That is why you need two or more muscles to move bones. VixYig

31 Nerves and Muscles Your nervous system controls how your muscles move your bones. carry electrical signals from the brain and spinal cord to your muscles. Without nerves you wouldn't move your QfLxQ

32 Other Systems Work Together
Some organs are in organ systems. The muscles make up your heart. They work with the circulatory system to push blood through your body. Muscles also squeeze food through the system. Skeletal system and circulatory system - White and red blood cells are made in bone

33 Review How many bones make up the skeletal system?
How many muscles do you have that you can control? Name an organ system and describe its job. How do muscles work in pairs to move a bone? Where are red and white blood cells made?

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